By F. Kaffu. Muskingum College. 2018.

Debré-Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris purchase suhagra 100 mg on line, Paris order suhagra 100mg on-line, France The indications for contrast-enhanced magnetic reso- sion is hyperintense and/or surrounded by hyperintense nance imaging (MRI) in the pediatric skeletal system fat signal (fatty marrow generic suhagra 100mg visa, epiphyseal marrow suhagra 100mg with visa, subcuta- are rapidly evolving and increasing [1-14] order 100mg suhagra with visa. MRI after neous fat, fat pad) gadolinium-enhanced MRI actually gadolinium administration is unique in children in that may overlook lesion enhancement or decrease visual- it allows evaluation of the vascularity of growing osteo- ization of the lesion. In these cases, subtraction and fat cartilaginous structures and their maturational patterns suppression techniques, such as chemical shift, or se- during normal development. Short TI inversion re- strength gradients and faster post-processing systems covery (STIR) is not recommended for discriminating becoming more widely avalaible, dynamic gadolinium- between fat and paramagnetically relaxed water be- enhanced subtracted (DGS) MRI can yield routinel in- cause both may be suppressed. Fast T1 weighted gradi- formation on vascularization, local blood volume, and ent echo and fast spin echo sequences with rapid se- perfusion, both qualitatively and quantitatively. This ar- quential image acquisition (5-20 s) allow dynamic ticle discusses the technical considerations for optimiz- imaging of the first pass of gadolinium after bolus in- ing MRI protocols and reviews the contrast-enhance- jection. Recognizing the pattern of normal en- Data Post-Processing hancement will serve as a reference in the analysis of disease processes, such as ischemia, necrosis, inflam- Automatic measurement of enhancement rates and mation, edema, revascularization, and neovasculariza- slopes provides additional information on regional tion [1-14]. The results are displayed on either parametric enhancement maps and/or time-intensity curves in a region of interest. The Technical Considerations Intravenous delivery The usual dose of gadolinium for pediatric muscu- loskeletal applications is 0. Intravenous access is achieved prior to sedation or im- mediately before obtaining postcontrast sequences in non-sedated children. The use of Emla cream is very effective for anesthetizing the injection site. In a dy- namic gadolinium-enhanced MR study is to be carried out, contrast-filled extension tubing allows scanning before, during and after bolus injection without inter- ruption. Pulse sequences The imaging protocol should always include a precon- trast T1-weighted sequence followed by a series of Fig. Sebag quickly growing regions of the body; thus, the number and distribution of these canals change with maturation [5, 10, 11]. In the physis and the acrophysis (growth cartilage of the ossification center), enhancement is very intense. The epiphyseal vessels provide nutrition to the growth zone of the physis, accounting for enhancement through diffusion in this region [5, 10], and are also responsible for en- hancement of the chondro-osseous junction of the acro- physis (Fig. The metaphyseal vessels are responsible for enhancement of the chondro-osseous junction of the physis. This pattern is a good indication of nor- mal endochondral ossification and is well demonstrated on imaging. Relative enhancement curves (MRE) and wash-in rate (WIR) in the proximal femur in a series of 37 children ages 39 to 178 months. In this se- ries, the physis and acrophysis showed the highest peak enhancement and enhancement rate (Figs. Physis: Maximum relative enhancement versus age following parameters can be measured and displayed: Fig. Physis: wash-in rate versus age absolute and relative enhancement, maximum relative enhancement, time of arrival, time to peak, wash-in rate, wash-out rate, brevity of enhancement, area under the curve (Fig. Gadolinium Enhancement Characteristics of the Developing Skeleton Recognition of the maturational pattern for a given state of development is mandatory in order to rule out patho- logic processes such as ischemia, necrosis, inflammation, edema and revascularization. Furthermore, it will assist in determining the optimal timing of data acquisition with respect to contrast administration. Anatomic and Doppler studies have shown that nutrition is provided to the cartilaginous epiphysis and physis by intracartilagi- nous vascular canals [1-7, 15]. Acrophysis: maximum relative enhancement versus age Contrast Enhancement of the Growing Skeleton: Rationale and Optimization in Pediatric MRI 177 Clinical Applications Evaluating Pediatric Bone Tumors Erlemann et al. However, both benign and malignant tumors demonstrated some overlap using this differential criterion, resulting in an ac- curacy of approximately 80% with this technique. Acrophysis: wash-in rate versus age pass slope value correlated well with tissue vasculariza- tion and perfusion but not with the histopathologic type of lesion. However, the high spatial resolution of (10/s) were significantly greater than the acrophyseal the first-pass or slope images allows easy detection of vi- MRE (41%) and WIR (5/s) (Table 1).

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Accordingly generic 100 mg suhagra amex, umbilical cord gases should be obtained in all depressed or resuscitation-requiring newborns discount suhagra 100mg without a prescription. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) injury pattern in the new- born must be placed in perspective with all the known pertinent clini- cal information cheap 100mg suhagra visa. After dealing with the emergent situation generic suhagra 100mg mastercard, all actions taken or not taken should be clearly documented in the medical record along with explanations provided to the parents generic suhagra 100 mg mastercard. Communication with the baby’s physician is very important not only to clarify the timing of the baby’s neurological injury but also to facilitate the obstetrician’s trans- lation of the baby’s status to the mother and family. The associations with maternal factors are weak except for an expulsive resolution to the second stage of labor and fetal macrosomia often seen in cases of maternal diabetes. Even making the diagnosis of macrosomia is difficult, and late pregnancy sonography is no better than clinical guesstimate. Elective induction of labor or elective C-section delivery for women suspected of carrying a macrosomic fetus is generally not recommended. On the other hand, the case has been made for elective C-section when the estimated fetal weight exceeds 4500 g in women with diabetes. It is essential to review the nurses’ notes to ascertain their concor- dance with your own notes on clinical events. For example, it is not uncommon for the nurse’s notes to reflect the use of fundal pressure rather than suprapubic pressure. Although there are no data to support the use of one maneuver over another, the McRobert’s patient posi- tioning is simple and resolves about 50% of the cases of anterior shoul- der impaction. Fundal pressure prior to the diagnosis of shoulder dystocia is not a standard-of-care issue. Cervical plexus injury has been reported without documented shoulder dystocia at the time of vaginal birth (9) as well as at the time of planned C-section (10). There is no scientific basis that all or even most brachial plexus injuries result from inappropriate maneuvers at deliv- ery (11). Newborn seizure activity is so rare following delivery with shoul- der dystocia that intracerebral hemorrhage must be ruled out. HIE with mental retardation and/or cerebral palsy is also rare (<1%), unless the time from diagnosis of dystocia at delivery of the head to resuscitation exceeds 10 minutes. Video recording during periods of obstetric emer- gencies should not be allowed. Although the severity of the dystocia cannot be defined as mild, moderate, or severe, a videotape is often very revealing as to the twists and turns exerted on the baby’s neck. Documentation of the sequence and timing of the maneuvers is critical as are APGAR scores, need for resuscitation, and evident plexus in- jury. Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death when associated complications are included. Death secondary to hem- orrhage would be most unusual in a modern obstetric service in the United States. Accepted risk factors include delays in identification of the site of the bleeding and in volume resuscitation with appropriate blood products. This often follows a failure to appreciate the quantity of blood the obstetric patient can lose before exhibiting shock fol- lowed rapidly by cardiovascular collapse and the morbidity of associ- ated organ injury. Furthermore, tachycardia ( 110 bpm) and systolic hypotension ( 90 mmHg) tend to be late signs in the obstetric patient occurring typically after a volume loss of approx 40%. Orthostatic systolic blood pressure checking is a more reliable indicator of signifi- cant hypovolemia—a 10 mmHg decrease equating in pregnancy to a deficit of 1 L or more. The medical management of obstetric hemorrhage, particularly with uterine atony, includes oxytocic agents such as oxytocin, methyler- gonovine, Hemabate™ intrauterine, and misoprostal per rectum. Fibrinogen replace- ment is almost always required because the more common antecedents to the hemorrhage are defibrination associated with placental abruption, dead fetus syndrome, or amniotic fluid embolism. Ligation of the internal hypogastric arteries does not improve survival (13). On the other hand, ligation of the ovarian and uterine pedicles without vessel transection may significantly decrease blood loss (12). Hysterectomy in the face of uncontrollable bleeding typically adds to the blood loss as well as the Chapter 11 / Obstetrics and Gynecology 147 intraoperative and postoperative complications. Packing, oversewing the placental bed, and suture techniques such as the B-Lynch suture (12,14) may slow blood loss sufficiently to allow adequate fluid resus- citation before proceeding with hysterectomy or other surgical inter- ventions. For this reason, heparin therapy should be considered after the patient is without evident bleeding (12).

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Although Contractures in some instances spasticity can be useful to help individuals perform certain func- Contractures (loss of range of motion suhagra 100mg on-line, tions such as shifting position or stand- or fixed deformity of a joint) may occur in ing generic 100 mg suhagra amex, more often it is a source of discom- paralyzed limbs if the joints are not moved fort suhagra 100 mg. When spasticity is a cause of con- through their regular range of motion order suhagra 100mg on line. If indi- medications may be used to reduce spas- viduals with paraplegia or quadriplegia ticity; however buy generic suhagra 100mg online, generalized weakness, the develop contractures of the hip or knee, side effects of sedation, or other side it may be difficult to assume adequate posi- effects may make this treatment less tioning in a wheelchair. In severe cases when other the joints through the full range of mo- treatments are ineffective in controlling tion through passive exercises conducted spasticity, individuals may resort to sur- by another person, or by using special gery, such as rhizotomy (surgical resec- equipment, can prevent contractures from tion of a nerve root) to relieve spasticity. In addition, proper wheelchair seating as well as positioning of joints can Osteoporosis help reduce risk of contractures. Bone is a dynamic substance that is Spasticity continually depositing and reabsorbing calcium. The combined stress of weight Spasticity refers to the exaggerated bearing and muscle pull that occurs with involuntary movement of paralyzed mus- normal activity helps bones maintain cles. Inactivity can con- immediately after injury, it can occur long tribute to softening and weakening of after individuals leave the rehabilitation bones (osteoporosis). Because communication between spinal cord injury have an increased rate the peripheral nervous system and the brain of calcium removal from the bone and are is interrupted by spinal cord injury, sig- consequently more susceptible to frac- nals received by the peripheral nerves are tures, which could be caused from falls “short–circuited. Calcium that is ately adapted, they instead return from excreted through the urinary system can the spinal cord directly to the muscle. The also contribute to urinary tract stones, as resulting muscle contraction can some- noted above. In some instances calcium is 84 CHAPTER 3 CONDITIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: PART II deposited in soft tissues so that function Good nutrition, an exercise program, and of the joint or muscle is disrupted. Because of strength-building exercises, and electrical the increased risk of cardiovascular condi- stimulation to the muscles can be used to tions, individuals should have regular help reduce risk. In addition, proper train- medical examinations and comprehen- ing in safety procedures when operating sive health care programs that accommo- a wheelchair and transferring can help date their needs. Autonomic Dysreflexia Cardiac and Respiratory Problems Autonomic dysreflexia is an abnormal reflex condition characterized by a sud- In the initial stages after injury, individ- den rise in blood pressure, profuse sweat- uals are susceptible to thrombophlebitis ing, and headache as the result of exces- (formation of blood clots in the legs) or sive neural discharge from the autonom- pulmonary embolism (a blood clot that ic nervous system. It may be triggered by travels to the lungs), a serious and poten- events as simple as overdistension of the tially life-threatening disorder. Unless the individual individual’s condition stabilizes, this con- receives immediate treatment to decrease dition becomes less of a treat. Identify- sure becomes significantly lower when ing and preventing the situations or con- the individual is moved from a flat to ditions that trigger autonomic dysreflexia upright position. Although these conditions become less prominent after the first month, individ- Other Neurological Complications uals with spinal cord injury continue to be more prone to respiratory disorders, es- Diaphoresis (profuse sweating) and pecially conditions such as pneumonia paresthesia (abnormal painful sensations that can be debilitating as well as life- below the level of injury) are other poten- threatening. Consequently, they are Nerves to the genital region are almost more susceptible to infection of the lungs. This does not mean, howev- have a more sedentary lifestyle, which er, that other aspects of sexuality, such as can affect the cardiovascular system. Be- sexual attraction to others, sexual desire, cause of the increased susceptibility to and the need to express oneself as a sex- cardiovascular conditions, they should ual being, are changed. Many men and refrain from smoking or using tobacco women remain sexually active after spinal products or drinking alcohol excessively. When women with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerv- spinal cord injury become pregnant, they ous systems as well as by motor nerves are able to carry the pregnancy to term, and will be dependent on the level of in- although because of altered sensation, it jury and on whether the injury is com- may be more difficult for them to deter- plete or incomplete. Psychosocial Issues in Spinal Cord Injury Most individuals with spinal cord injury, both males and females, will have little Spinal cord injury interrupts and alters sensation directly in the genital area. Individuals need to alter their technique in sexual with spinal cord injury, in addition to performance. The ing, also experience altered self-concept ability to produce an erection through psy- and in many instances loss of self-esteem. To a great degree, how have used techniques such as penile individuals adjust will be related to how implants to achieve intercourse. Ejacula- they conceptualize the losses they experi- tion is absent for most men with spinal ence, to their individual coping style and cord injury, or, if it does occur, individu- to the amount and type of social support als experience retrograde ejaculation, so available. As a result, fertili- spinal cord injury, it is not universal and ty in males is significantly affected, espe- is not necessary for adjustment to occur cially males with complete severance of (Cushman & Dijkers, 1991). Some techniques, such as viduals are more likely to exhibit depres- electro ejaculation, in which ejaculation is sive symptoms after spinal cord injury stimulated through electrical means, have than others.

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Routine urinalysis shows minimal red blood cells order 100 mg suhagra free shipping, no white blood cells purchase 100 mg suhagra amex, and no bacteria buy 100mg suhagra. What effect does this have on the ureter as demonstrated by the postcontrast image? Precontrast image Postcontrast image Chapter Summary Introduction to the Urinary System 3 generic 100mg suhagra with visa. The end product of the deliver blood to peritubular capillaries which is folded into rugae generic suhagra 100 mg fast delivery. These urinary system is urine, which is voided surrounding the nephron tubules. Each kidney is contained by a renal tubules are drained into papillary during ejaculation. The female capsule and divided into an outer renal ducts that extend through the renal urethra is much shorter than that of a cortex and an inner renal medulla. Micturition is controlled by reflex centers the minor calyces and then into the major calyces, which drain into the 1. Urine is channeled from the kidneys to in the second, third, and fourth sacral renal pelvis. From there, urine flows the urinary bladder by the ureters and segments of the spinal cord. Urinary System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 696 Unit 6 Maintenance of the Body Review Activities Objective Questions (c) the urinary bladder. Which of the following statements about development process lead to a better concave medial border of the kidney metanephric kidneys is true? List four common congenital (c) They are the third pair of kidneys to malformations of the urinary system. Essay Questions pyuria, oliguria, polyuria, uremia, and (d) adipose capsules. Describe the location of the kidneys in enters directly into relation to the abdominal cavity and the Critical-Thinking Questions (a) the renal calyces. Describe how the kidney is supported urinary system rather than the excretory against the posterior abdominal wall. Which of the following statements is this support related to the condition 2. Treatment with sulfa medications such as concerning the kidneys is false? Trace a drop of blood from an interlobular spectrum antibiotics such as tetracycline (b) They each contain 8 to 15 renal artery through a glomerulus and into an or ampicillin usually clear up the pyramids. What is (c) They each have two distinct vessels through which the blood passes. The neighborhood day-care center won’t third and fifth lumbar vertebrae. A renal stone (calculus), would most You’ve tried to toilet train your likely cause stagnation of urine in which 5. In a male, trace the path of urine from the site of filtration at the renal corpuscle to 15-month-old boy, but you haven’t made portion of the urinary system? List in order all the structures through which the urine your efforts, or would it be better to wait? What functions of a real kidney does an (d) the renal pelvis artificial kidney (dialysis machine) fail to (e) the urethra types of nephrons found in a kidney. Describe the urinary bladder with regard (d) the transitional epithelium. Male Reproductive © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development System Companies, 2001 Male Reproductive System 20 Introduction to the Male Reproductive System 698 Perineum and Scrotum 700 Testes 702 Spermatic Ducts, Accessory Reproductive Glands, and the Urethra 707 Penis 710 Mechanisms of Erection, Emission, and Ejaculation 712 CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS 714 Developmental Exposition: The Reproductive System 716 Clinical Case Study Answer 722 Chapter Summary 723 Review Activities 723 Clinical Case Study During a routine physical exam, a 27-year-old man mentioned to his family doctor that he and his wife had been unable to conceive a child after nearly 2 years of trying. He added that his wife had taken the initiative of having a thorough gynecological evaluation in an attempt to find out what was causing the problem. Her test findings revealed no physical conditions that could be linked to infertility. Upon palpating the patient’s testes, the doctor found nothing un- usual. When he examined the scrotal sac above the testes, however, the doctor appeared per- plexed.

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The new design makes navigating the the end of the book and include explanations as to why text easier discount 100mg suhagra with amex. Likewise discount 100mg suhagra amex, the design highlights the pedagogical the choices are correct or incorrect purchase 100mg suhagra visa. Each chapter provides a short list We thank the contributors for their patience and for fol- of recent review articles order suhagra 100 mg amex, monographs order suhagra 100 mg mastercard, book chapters, lowing directions so that we could achieve a textbook of classic papers, or Web sites where students can obtain reasonably uniform style. We thank Marlene Brown for her sec- includes a table of common abbreviations in physiology retarial assistance, Betsy Dilernia for her critical editing of and a table of normal blood, plasma, or serum values. All each chapter, and Kathleen Scogna, our development edi- abbreviations are defined when first used in the text, but tor, without whose encouragement and support this revised the table of abbreviations in the appendix serves as a use- edition would not have been possible. Professor of Physiology and Biophysics Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Indiana University School of Medicine Physiology and Biophysics Indianapolis, Indiana Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, Indiana Robert V. Indiana University School of Medicine Associate Professor of Physiology and Biophysics Indianapolis, Indiana Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, Indiana Denis English, Ph. Methodist Hospital of Indiana Professor and Chairman Indianapolis, Indiana Department of Physiology and Biophysics Indiana University School of Medicine Cynthia J. Indianapolis, Indiana Associate Professor of Anatomy/Neurobiology University of Vermont College of Medicine Thom W. Burlington, Vermont Director, Vascular Medicine Section Vascular Center Patricia J. Mayo Clinic Assistant Professor of Physiology Rochester, Minnesota Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, Indiana Harvey V. Michigan State University Associate Professor of Ophthalmology and East Lansing, Michigan Physiology and Biophysics Indiana University School of Medicine George A. Indianapolis, Indiana Professor of Physiology and Biophysics Indiana University School of Medicine Stephen A. Indianapolis, Indiana Professor of Physiology and Biophysics Indiana University School of Medicine Paul F. Indianapolis, Indiana Director, Center for Reproductive Sciences University of Kansas Medical Center John C. Kansas City, Kansas Associate Professor of Neurology and Physiology and Biophysics Indiana University School of Medicine Patrick Tso, Ph. Indianapolis, Indiana Professor of Pathology University of Cincinnati School of Medicine Bruce E. Cincinnati, Ohio Associate Professor of Physiology Indiana University School of Medicine C. Indianapolis, Indiana Research Pharmacologist, Military Ergonomics Division USARIEM James McGill, M. Natick, Massachusetts Assistant Professor of Medicine Indiana University School of Medicine Jackie D. Indianapolis, Indiana Professor and Chairman, Department of Physiology Ohio State University College of Medicine Columbus, Ohio vii PART I Cellular PhysiologyCellular Physiology CHAPTER Homeostasis and Cellular Signaling Patricia J. Different modes of cell communication differ in terms of and how they are regulated and integrated. Chemical signaling molecules (first messengers) provide function and survival of the organism. Homeostasis is the maintenance of steady states in the clude ions, gases, small peptides, protein hormones, body by coordinated physiological mechanisms. Receptors are the receivers and transmitters of signaling body’s responses to changes in the environment. Second messengers are important for amplification of the while equilibrium represents a balance between opposing signal received by plasma membrane receptors. Cellular communication is essential to integrate and coor- receptors that participate in the regulation of gene ex- dinate the systems of the body so they can participate in pression. It is a broad field that encompasses many dis- modynamic terms, muscle contraction is analyzed in terms of ciplines and has strong roots in physics, chemistry, and math- forces and velocities, and regulation in the body is described ematics. Physiologists assume that the same chemical and in terms of control systems theory.

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