By F. Innostian. Creighton University.

This is a time when you can extend your thinking a little without overstating the implications discount topamax 200mg amex. There is a fine balance between rhetoric discount topamax 200 mg with amex, “spin” order topamax 200mg overnight delivery, and reasonable speculation cheap topamax 100mg mastercard. On the other hand purchase topamax 100 mg, do not be too tentative if you found a strong association between the exposure and outcomes that you were investigating. A sentence such as, Our results suggest that vitamin consumption could be associated with a decreased risk of respiratory illness, has two hesitant parts: suggest and could be associated. To replace suggest with show or could be with is would be firmer but, unless you have conducted a definitive study, it is probably best not to change both parts of the sentence to stronger, more positive wordings. Never finish a discussion with, Further studies are needed … or We are now investigating whether …. This is not only boring but it is presumptuous to tell your readers what research you consider that they should do, or what you are thinking of doing next. The purpose of writing a paper is to show what you have found and what it means and not to suggest what work you or other researchers might undertake in the future. The top paragraph ends on a low note in that it suggests that someone else should be prepared to do a better study than the authors have done themselves. The second paragraph ends with impact in suggesting that the results have important implications for public health. Given the wealth of previous literature in this area, this interpretation was justified. Further studies are needed in which objective measurements of house dampness, exposure to biological contaminants, and health effects are used in addition to questionnaires, so that the associations found in our study and in other studies can be substantiated or refuted. A considerable body of evidence now exists that supports the contention that dampness and mould in the home is an 88 Writing your paper important public health issue, not solely for its immediate impact but also for the long-term implications. Poor housing conditions in childhood are associated with higher rates of admission to hospital, and higher morbidity and mortality in adult life. Hopefully, planners, policy makers, and medical practitioners will now plan concerted joint action to eradicate this unacceptable and needless health risk. For example, you may have conducted a questionnaire study and found that some people who are overweight by medical definitions do not consider themselves to be so. In this case, you cannot conclude that, Public health weight reduction programmes will be ineffective if this finding is not taken into account, because your finding does not apply to the majority of the overweight community, and you have not collected any evidence to support this. However, there is a strong case for putting your results in a broad community health perspective and suggesting that, Interventions to counteract personal perceptions may help to improve the effectiveness of weight loss campaigns. Provided that you do not overinterpret your finding, this kind of finale leaves the reader in no doubt that your results have some implications that could be used to provide better health care. Details of how to choose a title, select the appropriate references, and format your paper are explained in following chapters. If you set out to write a paper based on these summary guidelines, your paper should fall into place nicely from the day that you begin writing and it should become a pleasure for your peers and coauthors to review. The Dirac, Thompson, Einstein and Feynman quotes have been produced with permission from Horvitz, LA ed. The Bernard Shaw quote has been produced with permission from the Society of Authors on behalf of the Bernard Shaw estate. Websites 1 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) http://www. Randomised controlled trial of specialist nurse intervention in heart failure. Failure to report ethical approval in child health research: review of published papers. Ethnicity, race and culture: guideline for research, audit, and publication. Statistical power, sample size, and their reporting in randomised controlled trials. Better reporting of randomised controlled trials: the CONSORT statement.

Onimus M order topamax 100 mg without prescription, Laurain JM discount topamax 100 mg otc, Picard F (1990) Congenital diastasis of the sion of the knee is required in order to be able to stand inferior tibiofibular joint generic 200 mg topamax with mastercard. J Pediatr Orthop 10: 172–6 without expending large amounts of muscle power buy topamax 100mg overnight delivery. Ooishi T buy topamax 200 mg with amex, Sugioka Y, Matsumoto S, Fujii T (1993) Congenital dis- is no longer possible, however, the energy expenditure location of the knee. Paley D, Catagni M, Argnani F, Prevot J, Bell D, Armstrong P (1992) knee extensors must exert compensatory muscle power Treatment of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia using the or else an external extension moment can be generated Ilizarov technique. Or- hip extensors are used as compensators for maintaining thopäde 31:306–7 posture. Paterson DC, Simonis RB (1985) Electrical stimulation in the treat- ses can be used to preserve the dynamic stability of the ment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. Pellacci F, Montanari G, Prosperi P, Galli G, Celli V (1992) Lateral discoid meniscus: treatment and results. Arthroscopy 8: 526–30 Functional problems in the sagittal plane – such as 41. Räber D, Friederich NF, Hefti F (1998) 20 years follow-up after total hyperextension or a knee flexion contracture – are removal of lateral discoid meniscus in children. Since braces (Am) 80: 1579–86 that surround the knee or ankle foot orthoses only 42. Roach JW, Shindell R, Green NE (1993) Late-onset pseudarthrosis provide lateral stabilization, it is almost impossible of the dysplastic tibia. Rogala EJ, WynneDavies R, Littlejohn A, Gormley J (1974) Congeni- to influence flexion/extension movements, apart tal limb anomalies: frequency and aetiological factors. J Med Genet only effective in helping avoid knee hyperextension 11: 221–33 in stance. Rohren E, Kosarek F, Helms C (2001) Discoid lateral meniscus and the frequency of meniscal tears. Functional changes in the knee with no structural Report of a case of discoid medial cartilage, with an embryological deformity and caused by spastic muscle activity. Schröder S, Berdel P, Niethard F (2003) Registration of congenital ⊡ Table 3. As a result of the inadequate knee extension at the end of the swing > Definition phase the foot strikes the ground on tiptoe despite the The flexion of the knee at the start of the stance phase is plantigrade position of the foot (⊡ Fig. Neither excessively pronounced since the spasticity prevents ef- ankle foot orthoses nor corrective casts are capable of ficient knee extension in the swing phase. Ankle foot orthoses are Young patients, in particular, with spastic diplegia often nevertheless required to stabilize and support the feet. In this case, an incorrect foot position cannot be the cause of the equinus gait pattern. The therapeutic objective is to reduce the spastic- ity of the hamstring muscles, although this is difficult in practice. Since this gait pattern will otherwise develop into a crouch gait, regular physical therapy is required to counteract any contracture of the hamstrings. Strength training is important for the knee extensors, which are constantly overstretched in this position. Crouch gait > Definition A crouch gait refers to a gait pattern with permanently flexed hips and knees and typically dorsiflexed ankles. A crouch gait can result from various causes: ▬ Foot: talipes calcaneus, ▬ Knee: knee flexion contracture, – Contracture of the hamstring muscles, – Spasticity of the hamstring muscles or the rectus ⊡ Fig. Patient with equinus gait pattern despite the plantigrade position of the foot as it strikes the ground. The spastic activity of the femoris muscle, knee flexors stops the knee from extending sufficiently to place the – Weakness/excessive length of the knee extensors heel on the ground Hip: hip flexion contracture ⊡ Table 3. Functional disorders in primarily spastic locomotor disorders Deformity Functional benefit Functional drawbacks Treatment Giving-way of the knee – Increased energy Muscle stretching in the early load-bearing expenditure phase Risk of contracture Reduction of spasticity Crouch gait – Increased energy Pes calcaneus: ankle foot orthosis expenditure Retropatellar pain Contracture of hamstring muscles: lengthening Hip flexion contracture: lengthening of the flexors, correction of lever arms, shortening of overlong muscles Stiff knee in the swing – Small-stepped gait Rectus transfer phase Circumduction Knee hyperextension Indirect knee stabilization Overstretching of the Ankle foot orthosis in forward inclination posterior elements Pain 323 3 3. Positional splints a primary condition or secondarily to excessive or unnec- may also be helpful. If these muscles are not stretched essary lengthening of the Achilles tendon.

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