By N. Gunock. California State University, Chico.

Watson Home for Crippled sitis by aspiration with a large needle zestril 10 mg, for ulnar- Children at Leetsdale order 5mg zestril with visa, outside Pittsburgh buy discount zestril 5mg line. This nerve suture 10 mg zestril amex, and for acute suppurative arthritis was opened in 1919 and soon became one of the and gonorrheal arthritis discount 2.5 mg zestril overnight delivery. He wrote the chapter on outstanding crippled children’s hospitals in the “Fractures of the Pelvis, Sacrum and Coccyx” in country. Paul was very active in the state crippled Bancroft and Murray’s Surgical Treatment of the children’s services and at different times held as Motor-Skeletal System (1945). He was a hospitals in Pittsburgh and at the Shriner’s Hos- delightful story teller and had a host of stories, pital in Erie, Pennsylvania, in addition to the D. In 1923, Paul married Anne Laurel McNeill, Paul was vice president of the American who had been an army nurse in World War I, Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons in 1941, serving at one time in Evacuation Hospital No. They were devoted part- also the first president of the Pittsburgh Orthope- ners and had two sons, Paul Jr. Both Paul and David became of Medicine, and a member of the American orthopedic surgeons, and were associated with Orthopedic Association (1941), the Société Inter- their father in practice before he retired to Fort nationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Lauderdale, Florida. Traumatologie (SICOT) (1948), the American College of Surgeons, and the Latin American Society of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology. Paul had a great love for surgery and was always considered an excellent technician. He was best known for two operations: one, a barrel- stave graft for ununited fractures and bone cysts (1927); and the other, removal of the destroyed bone in the femoral head in coxa plana and packing of the cavity with bone chips (1928). The latter operation he performed for many years before it was reported in the literature. In his hands the results seemed to be better than those reported by others. This procedure was very 318 Who’s Who in Orthopedics sity and chief of the orthopedic service at Mercy Hospital in Iowa City. Steindler’s interest spanned the whole field of orthopedic surgery, and he wrote important essays on almost all aspects of the specialty. He adhered to sound biologic principles; he discouraged fads but was always on the lookout for new ideas. With his knowledge of Latin and of most of the western European languages, together with his enormous capacity for work, he acquired a vast medical culture. Steindler was honored by many of the medical and surgical societies of North and South America and of Europe. Among these honors he prized very highly the presidency of the American Orthopedic Association in 1933 and his election as honorary fellow of the Royal College of Sur- geons and honorary member of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1954. Steindler made excellent use of the facilities Arthur STEINDLER that he developed in Iowa City. An enlightened 1878–1959 state legislature pioneered in the field of a com- plete public program for the crippled indigent. As the population of the State of Iowa is fairly stable, Arthur Steindler was born in Graslitz, a town follow-up of cases and end-result studies of new north west of Prague, on June 22, 1878. In all his pub- early youth his family moved to Vienna, where he lications one encounters a rare combination of a pursued his undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1907, he came to the United States hip joint and the motion of the leg for the correc- and, until 1910, practiced orthopedic surgery in tion of deformities of the body by attaching a Chicago, where he worked also at the Home for thigh piece to the pelvic belt of a body brace. The Crippled Children and was associated with John thigh piece was connected by a hinge with the Ridlon. In 1910, he moved to Des Moines, Iowa, brace and braced the leg by means of a padded and became professor of orthopedic surgery at ring above the knee. In 1914, he married see one of Steindler’s main ideas in the treatment Louise Junk, whom he had met in Chicago while of scoliosis, which he improved greatly later on; she was working as a registered nurse at the Home that is, the development of a counter curve in the for Crippled Children. In that same year Steindler lumbar spine to improve the body alignment in a became an American citizen. Iowa City to develop the Department of Ortho- In 1917, he described his stripping operation pedic Surgery of the State University of Iowa. In his forthright Within a growing university in this small mid- fashion, he recommended this operation “because western town, he found a congenial intellectual it remedied the trouble to the extent to which the atmosphere and there spent the rest of his very contracture of the plantar fascia and the superfi- productive life. He served as professor and head cial layer of the musculature of the sole are of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery of the responsible.

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With other ADA cases pending buy zestril 2.5 mg on line, these definitional debates are far from over cheap zestril 2.5mg on-line. Today discount 2.5 mg zestril with mastercard, when the public equates claims of disability with expectations of entitlement—even for something as minor as a parking spot—hackles rise buy zestril 2.5mg fast delivery. Drivers in crowded malls can almost come to fisticuffs over perceived usurpation of handicapped parking spots zestril 10 mg cheap. In three recent sketches (Figures 3 to 5), a peg-legged sailor leaves his skiff at a mooring marked with a wheel- chair symbol; an elderly man rolls his scooter down a grocery store aisle, followed by the grim reaper, scythe held aloft, also riding a scooter; and a stout woman crosses a street with her cane, arm grasped by a Boy Scout who says, “I also do suicides. No single viewpoint encapsulates today’s attitudes toward disability in general, walking problems in particular, or the ADA. Attitudes are evolving, probably soon to be shaped by aging “baby boomers. Over three decades after Erving Goffman’s 1963 injunctions on how “cripples” should behave, the 1996 comments of the novelist Nancy Mairs, who uses a wheelchair because of MS, offer an eerily parallel counterpoint but with an entirely different sensibility. If I want people to grow accustomed to my presence, and to view mine as an ordinary life, less agreeable in some of its particulars than theirs but satisfying overall, then I must routinely roll out among them. I must be “on” all the time, since people seldom glance down to my height and so tend to walk into me as though I were immaterial. Unless paradise is paved into a parking lot, most of the earth’s surface is going to be too rough for my wheelchair.... Tosome, for reasons outside my con- trol, I will always be a figure of pity, scorn, despair. I will never wield a mop again, after all, or scrub another toilet bowl. But it is not the world’s task to assuage whatever genuine sorrows darken my spirit. In insisting that others view our lives as ample and precious, we are not demanding that they be made perfect. Researchers typically try to find overarching themes tying such comments together, but here I could not—numerous threads emerged. The same interviewee could suddenly turn 180 degrees, one minute lauding the consideration of strangers, the next decrying their insensitivity. Mattie Harris, a black woman who suddenly has “to grab onto people I don’t know,” finds that strangers, ini- tially taken aback, relent when she explains about her locking knees. Strangers sometimes seem anxious to offer assistance but hesitate, afraid of offending. One white man observed, “A lot of people think, ‘That person’s in a wheelchair. I want to help him but I’d better not ask, because they’re 58 / Society’s Views of Walking Figure 5. As one wheelchair user said, “People are very decent, really want to help. When help comes unsolicited, es- pecially when people fall, negotiating the impulses of strangers can prove challenging (chapter 3). One white woman admits that she hasn’t “been that nice” to strangers who reach down to lift her when she falls. When I didn’t have strength in my legs, it was actually not helpful for somebody to pull me up. Children frequently sidle up to scooter users, anxious to learn more about their interesting conveyance. Parents often whisk them immediately away, Society’s Views of Walking / 59 signaling avoidance and shame (Murphy 1990, 130). Of course I wouldn’t dare do that because of the lia- bility—the child might push the wrong buttons. The woman the governor helped sometimes uses a rolling walker, attracting questions from strangers: “People ask me about the walker. They’re very interested because they’ve got a relative who doesn’t have such a nice walker. Saying they wish they had one, strangers ask him where he got it, how much it cost. He gives them his telephone number, telling them to call for more information.

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But people were assumed to dislike work and shirk labor by exaggerating their physi- cal problems order 5 mg zestril fast delivery. The legacy of these views persists today in insinuations about whether people can control their walking difficulties (chapter 2) 5 mg zestril free shipping. Fourteenth-century English laws held that “honest beggars”—those who deserved alms—came involuntarily to their plights generic zestril 10 mg fast delivery, forced by circumstances beyond their control (Stone 1984) zestril 5 mg visa. A 1536 En- glish statute allowed citizens to give alms directly to “lame” or blind per- sons discount zestril 2.5 mg line, but not to other beggars in the street. In late-nineteenth-century En- gland, “lameness” qualified people as “defective” but deserving, meriting special vocational training. In seventeenth-century America, the physical demands of exploring and settling rough and rugged country “meant that early colonists put a premium on physical stamina” (Shapiro 1994, 58). Initial settlers opposed immigration of persons who might need community support; people with physical or mental impairments could be deported (Baynton 2001). By the time of the Revolutionary War, these attitudes had eased somewhat, al- though most disabled people remained hidden, cloistered indoors. In 1781 Thomas Jefferson reported that Virginians without “strength to labour” were “boarded in the houses of good farmers,” supported by tithes from local parishes (Jefferson 1984, 259). Only in “larger towns” might such people be seen, begging on the streets. Wounded soldiers from America’s wars merited special consideration (Scotch 2001). The Civil War inflicted roughly 60,000 amputations, about 40 percent involving lower extremities (Figg and Farrell-Beck 1993, 454, 460). In 1862 Congress passed the first of several laws to assist injured vet- erans, including granting $75 to purchase a prosthetic leg for each “loyal” Union soldier in need. Southern states bore prosthetic expenses for Con- federate veterans, with Mississippi spending 20 percent of its state rev- enues in 1886 on artificial arms and legs (Shapiro 1994, 61). By World War I, improved medical care allowed veterans to return home with even more severe impairments, prompting federal legislation in 1918 and 1920 to provide vocational training and job counseling. These programs also benefited growing numbers of persons injured by industrial accidents. Society’s Views of Walking / 51 Nonetheless, people disabled by disease—not war injury or accident— remained largely hidden from public view. He also never com- plained or talked about his impairment to friends or family, including his wife, Eleanor. How much Roosevelt deceived himself remains unclear, but he knew he must deceive the public to get votes. After arduous practice, Roosevelt appeared to walk, when he actually threw his legs sequentially forward from the hips while basically being carried by his arms. His goal was to “walk without crutches,” to “stand eas- ily enough in front of people so that they’ll forget I’m a cripple” (63). At the time, Roosevelt’s denial of his disability served his nation well. Before polio, Roosevelt had appeared cocky and arrogant; after polio, he connected with people. The public accepted the story that Roosevelt had overcome polio and was now just a little lame. Even the White House pho- tography corps willingly hid Roosevelt’s wheelchair use. From the unseen wheelchair and almost without respite, Roosevelt led the nation through the darkest days of the twentieth century before he died, as Winston Churchill observed, “in battle harness, like his soldiers, sailors, and air- men” (Gilbert 1991, 836). The March of Dimes, using Roosevelt as its behind-the-scenes poster child (chapter 2), raised more money than any other health campaign, eventually leading to discovery of the Salk polio vaccine. Roosevelt understood that rehabilita- tion of polio patients “was a social problem with medical aspects. It was not a medical problem with social aspects” (Gallagher 1994, 53–54). In 1929, as governor of New York he exhorted the legislature to recognize the state’s obligation “to restore to useful activity those children and adults who have the misfortune to be crippled” (78). As soon as the original Social Security Act passed in 1935, Roosevelt contemplated expanding the program, possi- bly adding medical and disability benefits (Stone 1984, 69). The demands of World War II allowed disabled persons—as well as women—to work in record numbers, although they lost these jobs when peace arrived (Linton 1998, 51). Yet Eleanor Roosevelt conceded that her husband “has never ad- mitted he cannot walk” (Gallagher 1998, 208).

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