By Q. Gnar. Williams Baptist College.

Gradedmuscleactivityispossiblebecausea Motor Unit of Skeletal Muscle variable number of motor units can be re- Unlike some types of smooth muscle (single- cruited as needed mycelex-g 100mg generic. One motor neuron together with all muscle The number and type of motor units recruited fibers innervated by it is called a motor unit depends on the type of movement involved (MU) buy mycelex-g 100mg with mastercard. Muscle fibers belonging to a single (fine or coarse movement buy discount mycelex-g 100 mg on line, intermittent or per- motor unit can be distributed over large por- sistentcontraction purchase mycelex-g 100mg on line,reflexactivity buy discount mycelex-g 100 mg line,voluntaryor tions (1cm )2 of the muscle cross-sectional involuntary movement, etc. To supply its muscle fibers, a motor neu- strength of each motor unit can be increased ron splits into collaterals with terminal by increasing the frequency of neuronal im- branches (! A given motor neuron may pulses, as in the tetanization of skeletal muscle supplyonly25musclefibers(mimeticmuscle) (! Two types of skeletal muscle fibers can be distinguished: S – slow-twitch fibers (type 1) and F – fast-twitch fibers (type 2), including two subtypes, FR (2A) and FF (2B). Since each motor unit contains only one type of fiber, this 58 classification also applies to the motor unit. Contractile Apparatus of Striated changes in the head–neck segment allow the myosin head to “tilt” when interacting with Muscle actin (sliding filaments;! A2)approximately Actin is a globular protein molecule (G- 10 to 100µm in diameter. Two of visiblewiththenakedeyeareactuallybundles the twisted protein filaments combine to form of muscle fibers that are around 100 to an actin filament (! B) formed by the filamentous mensional) microscopy, one can identify alter- protein titin (connectin). Titin is more than nating light and dark bands and lines (hence 1000nm in length and has some 30000 amino the name “striated muscle”) created by the acids (Mr! It is the longest known thick myosin II filaments and thin actin fila- polypeptide chain and comprises 10% of the ments (! Titinisanchoredatitscarb- 2000actinfilamentsareboundmediallytothe oxyl end to the Mplate and, at the amino end, Z plate. The region where the actin and tions) that run perpendicular to the myofibrils myosin filaments overlap is called the Aband. The (actin) filaments are bers without connections between the intra- anchored to the sarcolemma by the protein andextracellularspaces. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is moleculehastwoglobularheadsconnectedby more prominently developed in skeletal flexible necks (head and neck = subfragment musclethaninthemyocardiumandservesasa S1; formed after proteolysis) to the filamen- Ca2+ storage space. Each T system separates tous tail of the molecule (two intertwined α- the adjacent longitudinal tubules, forming tri- helices = subfragment S2) (! Two light protein chains are located on each neck of this heavy molecule (220kDa): one is regulatory (20kDa), the 60 other essential (17kDa). Conformational Despopoulos, Color Atlas of Physiology © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Ultrastructure of striated muscle fibers Sarkomere 100–1000µm 10–100µm 1µm 1 Bundle of fibers 2 Muscle fiber (myocyte) 3 Myofibril B. Myosin II molecule Motor domain Actin- P binding domain Nucleotide- 2 P pocket nm (ATP or ADP) Regulatory light chain Essential light chain Neck Shaft(150nm) (flexible) Head 61 20nm (After D. Warshaw) Despopoulos, Color Atlas of Physiology © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. The release of their ATPase activity, the myosin heads acetylcholine at the motor end-plate of skeletal (! The myosin-II and actin filaments spreads electrotonically and activates voltage- of a sarcomere (! This leads to the firing of action myosinheadsconnectwith theactin filaments potentials (AP) that travel at a rate of 2 m/s at a particular angle, forming so-called cross- along the sarcolemma of the entire muscle bridges (! Due to a conformational change fiber, and penetrate rapidly into the depths of in the region of the nucleotide binding site of the fiber along the T system (! In the skeletal muscle, this process drawing the thin filament a length of roughly begins with the action potential exciting volt- 4nm(! Thesecondmyosinheadmayalso age-sensitive dihydropyridine receptors move an adjacent actin filament. The head (DHPR) of the sarcolemma in the region of the then detaches and “tenses” in preparation for triads. The DHPR are arranged in rows, and the next “oarstroke” when it binds to actin directly opposite them in the adjacent mem- anew (!

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Antacids containing magnesium should be tom of an abnormality in calcium metabolism generic 100mg mycelex-g visa. Magnesium trolyte imbalance; and abdominal cramps when taken as sulfate buy generic mycelex-g 100 mg line, if given intravenously purchase mycelex-g 100 mg mastercard, is incompatible with cal- a laxative discount 100mg mycelex-g amex. Milk of magnesia occasionally produces nau- cium gluceptate purchase mycelex-g 100 mg fast delivery, clindamycin, dobutamine, polymyxin B sea or diarrhea. Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. The Vedas, or ancient Hindu scriptures, also men- tion the treatment of diseases with lodestones. The word “lodestone” or leading stone, came from the use of these stones as compasses. The word “magnet” probably stems from the Greek Magnes lithos, or “stone from Magne- Magnetic therapy sia,” a region of Greece rich in magnetic stones. Gilbert allegedly used magnets to re- lieve the arthritic pains of Queen Elizabeth I. Contempo- Magnetic therapy dates as far back as the ancient rary American interest in magnetic therapy began in the Egyptians. Magnets have long been believed to have 1990s, as several professional golfers and football play- healing powers associated with muscle pain and stiff- ers offered testimony that the devices seemed to cure ness. The an- Many centuries ago, the earth was surrounded by a cient Chinese medical text known as The Yellow Emper- much stronger magnetic field than it is today. The other theory maintains that when mag- nets are applied to a painful area of the body, all the cells Positive (stressful) in that area react to increase blood circulation, ion ex- increase in acid production change, and oxygen flow to the area. Magnetic fields at- tract and repel charged particles in the bloodstream, in- depletes oxygen production creasing blood flow and producing heat. Increased oxy- cellular edema (water retention) gen in the tissues and blood stream is thought to make a produces insomnia, restlessness, wakefulness considerable difference in the speed of healing. Products available in a range of prices include necklaces and bracelets; knee, Inhibits growth of microorganisms back, shoulder and wrist braces; mattress pads; gloves; negates free radicals shoe inserts; and more. Mag- past 155 years, scientists have been studying the decline nets have become big business; they can be found in of this magnetic field and the effects it has had on human mail-order catalogs and stores ranging from upscale de- health. When the first cosmonauts and astronauts were partment stores to specialty stores. After this discovery was made, artifical magnet- buyer beware” approach to magnetic therapy. Benefits Some of the benefits that magnetic therapy claims to Side effects provide include: There are very few side effects from using magnetic • pain relief therapy. Generally, patients using this therapy find that it • reduction of swelling either works for them or it does not. Patients using tran- • improved tissue alkalinization scranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depres- sion reported mild headache as their only side effect. Since • improved blood circulation the late 1950s, hundreds of studies have demonstrated • anti-infective activity the effectiveness of magnetic therapy. In 1997, a group of physicians at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas studied the use of magnetic therapy in 50 patients Description who had developed polio earlier in life. These patients There are two theories that are used to explain mag- had muscle and joint pain that standard treatments failed netic therapy. When magnets are ap- net taped over a trouble spot, and 21 others wore a non- 1272 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 magnetic device. Neither the researchers nor the patients were told which treatment they were receiving (magnetic KEY TERMS or nonmagnetic). In another study at New York Medical College in Lodestone—A variety of magnetite that possesses Valhalla, New York, a neurologist tested magnetic thera- magnetic polarity. Their problems were caused by diabetes or other conditions present such as alcoholism. This group of patients wore a magnetic insole inside one of their Resources socks or shoes for 24 hours a day over a two-month peri- od, except while bathing.

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Muscle testing involves putting the body into a • frozen shoulder position that requires a certain muscle to remain contract- ed mycelex-g 100 mg without prescription, and then applying pressure against the muscle 100 mg mycelex-g with mastercard. The Joint health testing does not measure strength but is meant to reveal • carpal tunnel syndrome stresses and imbalances in the body through the tension • arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis) in the muscle generic mycelex-g 100mg with mastercard. AK Muscle health practitioners also examine structural factors such as pos- • tennis elbow ture mycelex-g 100mg with visa, gait generic 100 mg mycelex-g free shipping, and range of motion. Examples of treatment meth- bladder) ods include special diets, dietary supplements, chiro- • bedwetting practic manipulation, osteopathic cranial techniques, Reproductive organ health acupuncture/meridian therapies, acupressure, deep mus- cle massage, and nervous system coordination proce- • menstrual pains dures. For example, an AK practitioner might treat asth- • irregular or excessive menstrual activity ma by looking for weaknesses in specific lower back and • pelvic pains and endometriosis leg muscles that share a connection with the adrenal glands. The practitioner will strengthen these muscles • menopausal flushes and help the adrenal gland produce bronchodilators, • painful, nodular breasts chemicals that relax or open air passages in the lungs. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 115 The practice of kinesiology requires that it be used Research & general acceptance in conjunction with other standard diagnostic methods AK is a tool that is used by many health care profes- by professionals trained in clinical diagnosis. A literature re- titioners of AK are chiropractors, but naturopaths, med- view published in 1999 by researchers from the School ical doctors, dentists, osteopaths, nutritionists, physical of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at therapists, massage therapists, podiatrists, psychiatrists, Chapel Hill and the Foundation for Allied Conservative and nurse practitioners are also involved. Subsequent NBCE surveys indicated that 31% surprising, since cost, satisfaction, utilization, and of chiropractors in Canada, 60% in Australia, and 72% in changes in symptoms are the important results of clinical New Zealand use AK. In addition, they determined that some studies Most practitioners of AK utilize a holistic approach that were supposed to be an evaluation of AK procedures and evaluate a person from a triad-based health perspec- did not actually use clinical practices and principles of tive. However, from studies adhering to AK principles ing from a structural basis, medical doctors generally and employing standardized training by well-trained from a chemical basis, and psychiatrists and psycholo- practitioners, they did state there was some evidence that gists from a mental or emotional basis. They sug- ogists attempt to work with all three areas of health, and gested that “future studies of AK should focus on out- in some cases, include a spiritual dimension. Only well-designed studies that account for the age if the policy covers chiropractor benefits. The cost of individual nature of AK diagnosis and treatment and pre- the AK examination is similar to the costs of other chiro- serve the proper clinical context of AK treatment will be practic practices. Understanding the individual components of the process of AK treatment remains important. Stud- ies addressing validation of isolated AK procedures need Preparations to meet the methodological challenges of studying ap- Since AK is a non-invasive diagnostic tool, there are propriate subjects that reflects the current recognized no preparations required. Further evaluation of the basic physiologic phenomena involved and correla- tion of AK manual muscle test results will also advance Precautions understanding of this diagnostic and therapeutic system. The AK examination should be combined with a standard physical diagnosis, which often includes In 1976, a group of doctors who were practicing AK laboratory tests, x rays, health and dietary history, and founded the International College of Applied Kinesiology other special tests. The purpose of the ICAK is to promote teaching standard diagnosis, not replace it. The college does not have physical work-up should be used to determine the final diagnosis. Instead, it is an organization to bring together those in the health field with common interests and goals The use of manual muscle testing to evaluate nutri- and to provide education in the use of AK. The organiza- tion is particularly a problem if it is done by a lay nutri- tion has chapters representing Belgium, Luxembourg, tion sales person as a tool to sell his/her product. The per- and the Netherlands (BeNeLux), Germany, France, Italy, son should have the educational background to evaluate Germany, Scandanavia, United Kingdom, Canada, Aus- nutritional needs as well as have a high level of knowl- tralia and Asia (Australasia), and the United States. AK is performed by a healthcare professional who has basic education in his or her field of practice. To be- Side effects come an applied kinesiologist, the healthcare profession- If AK is performed by a trained practitioner with the al must study the principles in a basic course, which in- appropriate educational background, side effects from cludes 100 hours of classroom study taught by a diplo- the muscle-testing procedures should be minimal. At the end of this course, students 116 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 take a basic proficiency test. To obtain certification by Though smaller than the peach, apricots have the the board of ICAK, the professional must complete 300 same russet-tinted, golden, velvet appearing exterior and hours of continuing classes, pass a diplomate test (a deeper golden-orange flesh inside. The innermost layers comprehensive written and practical test), and present form the large, woody compressed stone, or pit, that con- two research papers to the general membership of ICAK. When pressed, nearly half of this kernel gives forth an oil very chemi- Resources cally similar to the oil found in sweet almond and peach kernels. Kinesiology: Muscle Testing and Energy Bal- acid, and a transparent, crystalline chemical compound, ancing for Health and Well-Being.

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