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By U. Jorn. Silver Lake College.

Has the topic already been covered purchase 20mg cialis jelly visa, or is it not one the editor feels will interest his or her readership? Answers to these questions will help you decide whether you need to modify your style 20 mg cialis jelly with amex, ap­ proach or content discount 20 mg cialis jelly with mastercard. If you still think your idea is good generic 20 mg cialis jelly mastercard, then move quickly on to another publication and start the process all over again cheap 20 mg cialis jelly free shipping. Whatever happens, remem- ber–arejection at this stage, before you have written an entire article, will save you time and effort. Writing your article It is worth spending time studying how media articles are written and con­ structed. You will find that like any other piece of writing, each one will have a typical three-part structure. The introduction Introductions tend to be brief with the topic and the author’s perspective on it quickly conveyed to the reader. Read the introduction to different ar­ ticles that deal with similar subject matter: how did you know what the content would be? Check that your introduction clearly indicates your topic and signals the perspective you will be taking. The main body The main body of the article will contain the bulk of the information. Content Compare the content of different articles on the same topic: ° List the key messages. ARTICLES FOR THE MEDIA 311 help direct the reader’s attention to key information. When giving advice try: ° Top Tips ° Helpful Hints ° Five Ways to Help ° Three Golden Rules ° Dos and Don’ts ° If you… When giving information try: ° It’s a Fact ° Did you know…? When providing guidelines on seeking professional help: ° Five Reasons to Call a Doctor ° Warning Signs ° If you are worried… ° You need help if… ° Seek help when… Be careful not to overuse boxes. Articles must be fitted around the important income-generating advertisements. Part of your planning will involve working out how many words you want to allocate to each section of your work. As you start to write you may 312 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE find that you have to adapt your plan so that some sections are longer and others shorter. If you find that you have strayed over the word length, try to edit your work so that it is more concise. For example, ‘your headings’ uses fewer words than ‘the headings you use in your manuscript’ but still retains the meaning. However, if this is not possible you will have to consider omit­ ting some of the content itself. Select minor details that do not affect the overall meaning of the piece. In general, headings help: ° to provide a framework ° to break the text into shorter and more manageable sections for the reader ° as signposts to help the reader find specific information ° to signal a change in topic ° to help the flow of the article. However, be aware that the editor may need to change your headings in order to fit your piece into the available space. This is often achieved by the use of short sentences written in the active rather than the passive voice. This will influence your choice of language and the way in which you express ideas. You will not be able to assume an underlying knowledge base in the same way that you can when writing for other professionals. For example, you may safely assume that many female readers will understand the term ‘oestrogen’, but they may need an explanation of ‘androgens’. ARTICLES FOR THE MEDIA 313 The age, gender and culture of the reader are also important factors. For example, an article about contraceptives in a teenage magazine will re­ quire more explanation than one aimed at women in their thirties. Look at various articles and compare the opening paragraph with the last.

Make sure they know it is a pilot test and ask them to forward any comments they may have about the length generic 20 mg cialis jelly with mastercard, structure and wording of the question- naire cialis jelly 20mg visa. Go through each response very carefully safe cialis jelly 20 mg, noting comments and looking at the answers to the questions as this will help you to discover whether there are still am- biguities present discount cialis jelly 20 mg without prescription. If you have had to undertake major alterations generic cialis jelly 20 mg amex, you may need to pilot the questionnaire again. Personal profile form HOW TO CONSTRUCT QUESTIONNAIRES/ 97 This may seem a rather long and laborious process, but it is incredibly important, especially if you’re intending to send out a large number of questionnaires. OBTAINING A HIGH RESPONSE Questionnaires are big business and as more and more fall through our letterboxes we become less willing to spend the time completing them. You need to make yours stand out so that all your careful planning and construc- tion is not wasted. There are many simple measures you can take to try to ensure a high response rate. X Is the questionnaire relevant to the lives, attitudes and beliefs of the respondents? X Can the respondents read if they are to be given a self- administered questionnaire? For example, illegal immigrants may be less likely to fill in a questionnaire than legal immigrants. X Are the instructions straightforward and realistic about how long it will take to complete? X Has the respondent been told who the research is for and what will happen to the results? X Has the respondent been reassured that you under- stand and will comply with the Data Protection Act? X Can your respondents see some personal benefit to be 98 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS gained by completing the questionnaire? X Has a follow-up letter and duplicate questionnaire been sent in cases of none response? QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN CHECKLIST X Make your questionnaire as short as possible. X Don’t assume knowledge or make it seem that you expect a certain level of knowledge by the way your questions are worded. X Decide whether you’re interested in behaviour, beliefs, attitudes or characteristics or a combination of the above. X Make sure you have made the right decisions concern- ing open-ended questions, closed-ended questions or a combination of both. X Decide whether your questionnaire is to be self-admi- nistered or interviewer administered. X Include a covering letter with information about who the research is for and what will happen to the results. X Include details about how the questionnaire is to be re- turned (making sure you enclose a pre-paid envelope if you need the respondent to return the form to you). X Make sure you include a date by which time you would like the questionnaire returned. X Pilot the questionnaire and instructions to check that all can be understood. It is a procedure for generating under- standing about the way of life of others. However, as there are many practical ‘how to’ issues involved in the use of participant observation, I am going to discuss it as a re- search method. But as you will see, there are several meth- odological issues which are raised in the following discussion, especially concerning ethics and the personal role of the researcher. Participant observation can be carried out within any community, culture or context which is different to the usual community and/or culture of the researcher. It may be carried out within a remote African tribe or in hospitals, factories, schools, prisons and so on, within your own country. The researcher immerses herself into the community – the action is deliberate and intended to add to knowledge. The researcher participates in the community while obser- ving others within that community, and as such she must 101 102 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS be a researcher 24 hours a day. In practice most research- ers find that they play more of a role as observer, than they do as a participant. GAINING ACCESS Participant observation, as a research method, cannot work unless you’re able to gain access to the community that you wish to study.

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