By J. Achmed. California State University, San Bernardino.

Thematic analysis When data is analysed by theme generic prilosec 10mg without a prescription, it is called thematic ana- lysis 10mg prilosec otc. This type of analysis is highly inductive purchase prilosec 40mg without a prescription, that is discount prilosec 20 mg with visa, the themes emerge from the data and are not imposed upon it by the researcher purchase 40mg prilosec. In this type of analysis, the data collec- 116 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS tion and analysis take place simultaneously. Even back- ground reading can form part of the analysis process, especially if it can help to explain an emerging theme. EXAMPLE 8: RICHARD Richard was interested in finding out what members of the public thought about higher education. During a fo- cus group with some library workers, he noticed that some people had very clear ideas about higher educa- tion, whereas others had very little idea. He asked the group why they thought this was the case and it emerged that the people who had clear ideas about higher education had either been to college or university themselves, or knew someone close to them who had been through higher education. Richard decided to follow it up by interviewing people who had never been to college or university to see how different their perceptions might be. Using this method, data from different people is com- pared and contrasted and the process continues until the researcher is satisfied that no new issues are arising. Com- parative and thematic analyses are often used in the same project, with the researcher moving backwards and for- wards between transcripts, memos, notes and the research literature. HOW TO ANALYSE YOUR DATA/ 117 EXAMPLE 9: RICHARD Once Richard had discovered that members of the pub- lic who had close contact with higher educational insti- tutions had clearer perceptions than those who had no contact, he felt two issues were important. First, he wanted to find out how close the contact had to be for people to have very clear perceptions of university, and second, he wanted to find out where perceptions came from for those people who had no contact with higher education. Through careful choice of intervie- wee, and through comparing and contrasting the data from each transcript, he was able to develop a sliding scale of contact with higher education. This ranged from no contact, ever, for any member of the family or friends, through to personal contact by the intervie- wee attending higher education. Having placed each interviewee somewhere on the scale, he then went back to the transcripts to look for hints about how their perceptions had been formed. At the same time he consulted existing research literature which addressed the issue of influences on personal per- ception to see if this would give him further insight into what was arising from his data. After this process, if data was missing or he was unable to understand some- thing which had been said, he would conduct another interview until he felt that his analysis, and his under- standing, were complete. Using this method the researcher systematically works through each transcript assigning codes, which may be numbers or words, to specific characteristics within the text. The researcher may already have a list of categories or she may read through each transcript and let the categories emerge from the data. This type of analy- sis can be used for open-ended questions which have been added to questionnaires in large quantitative surveys, thus enabling the researcher to quantify the answers. EXAMPLE 10: TINA In her research on students’ attitudes towards alcohol, Tina, from her own experience, felt that money, social life, halls of residence and campus bars would all be sig- nificant. She assigned code numbers to these issues and then went through each transcript, writing the code number above the relevant section when any of these is- sues were mentioned. Sure enough, they did appear to be important and were discussed in every interview, even with non-students. However, she also found that many other issues were being discussed which she had not thought about previously, such as peer pressure and dis- tance from home. As each new issue was mentioned, she ascribed another code and went back to previous tran- HOW TO ANALYSE YOUR DATA/ 119 scripts to see if it had arisen but had been missed during the initial analysis. Although she had to return to the transcripts many times, this meant that by the end of the process Tina had completed a thorough analysis of her data. Discourse analysis Falling in the middle of the qualitative analysis continuum is discourse analysis, which some researchers have named conversational analysis, although others would argue that the two are quite different. These methods look at patterns of speech, such as how people talk about a particular sub- ject, what metaphors they use, how they take turns in con- versation, and so on. These analysts see speech as a performance; it performs an action rather than describes a specific state of affairs or specific state of mind. Much of this analysis is intuitive and reflective, but it may also involve some form of counting, such as counting instances of turn-taking and their influence on the conversation and the way in which people speak to others. EXAMPLE 11: JULIE Julie wanted to find out about women’s experiences of premenstrual tension (PMT). As PMT is a relatively new phrase to describe this condition, Julie was inter- ested in finding out how women spoke about the pro- blems they were experiencing, both in the present day and in the past. She wanted to look closely at what wo- men from different generations said about themselves 120 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS and how they talked to each other about their problems.

Preoperative planning and results of valgus-flexion osteotomy (VFO) for 34-year-old woman at surgery order 40mg prilosec visa. For the right hip purchase prilosec 20mg free shipping, the same procedure was indicated 2 years after index osteotomy a b Fig order prilosec 10 mg line. How to decide whether to perform flexion or extension using dynamic fluoroscopic examination under anesthesia generic prilosec 40 mg line. Substantial widening of lateral joint space is shown OA Joint Reconstruction Without Replacement Surgery 169 Clinical and Radiologic Results For 229 hips in advanced- and terminal-stage OA generic prilosec 10 mg visa, we have performed either VFO or VEO, mainly valgus-flexion. On day 2, patients start passive and active ROM exercise and use of wheelchair. At week 6, two-thirds partial weight-bearing starts and the patient is discharged from the hospital. At 3 to 4 months, full weight-bearing starts, when bone union is expected. The evaluation of the clinical results includes the hip scoring system by the Japa- nese Orthopaedic Association (JOA Hip Score) for clinical outcome, our assessment method of radiologic findings, and cumulative survivorship. Of the 229 hips, 2 were excluded due to technical failure because these 2 patients had to convert to THR less than 2 years after osteotomy. At 1 year postoperative, the score became 76, up from 51, and at 5 years, it goes up further, to almost 80 points. Then, particu- larly among the patients with severe joint contracture, the score started to decline gradually, and at final follow-up, the score dropped down to 73. Compared to the preoperative hip score, it was still significantly better. We looked at the degree of joint space widening, degree of improvement in bone cysts and osteosclerosis, and the degree of trabecular remodeling. Preoperatively, all cases were “poor” because they are mostly in their terminal stage. At 5 years after osteotomy, all cases had improvements, with “good” or “fair,” but after 10 years, we started to see “poor” cases again. JOA Score 90 80 70 60 Total Score 50 Pain Gait 40 ROM ADL 30 20 10 0 Fig. At 18 years after VFO, a very good remodeling had been achieved with widening of the joint space and near nor- malization of the trabecular structure. After VFO, gradual resorption of the anterolateral part of the head that is not functioning had occurred. With VFO, the old femoral head is further pushed out anterolaterally and loses its function. The inclined weight- bearing surface showed significant osteosclerosis and cyst formation on the preopera- tive radiogram (Fig. At 19 years later, the roof osteophyte gradually grew and matured to a horizontal direction, widening the weight-bearing surface (Fig. I present the characteristic radiographic change during the initial stage after VFO. The X-ray finding taken at 3 months after VFO showed hinge adduction between capital drop and double floor and remarkable bone atrophy in the previous weight-bearing area (Fig. In general, marked bone atrophy occurs within 3 to 6 months postoperatively, which disappears almost completely within 1 year. In addi- tion, the weight-bearing area has widened by a horizontally grown roof osteophyte, making a stable joint a b c Fig. Appearance of marked bone atrophy of the previous weight-bearing area during 3–6 months after surgery is a characteristic finding in patients who have a favorable postopera- tive course. If a roof osteophyte is initially present, it further grows and eventually reaches maturation. Survivorship analysis was conducted taking either the time of conversion to THR or the time when the JOA hip score was less than 50 as the endpoint. It is clear that at 15 years, 59% for VFO alone, and 58% for VO plus Chiari’s pelvic osteotomy, are seen, the latter group being somewhat inferior (Fig. VO, valgus osteotomy Complications of VFO The complications of the operation included 4 cases of intraoperative fracture; 2 were a highly comminuted head fracture and they were excluded from the analysis. There were 3 cases of transient sciatic nerve paresis in Chiari combination. Seven cases had superficial infection and 3 cases delayed healing and non-union. The latter cases were successfully treated by addi- tional procedures such as implant exchange with bone graft.

Selectivity to the desired form was good proven prilosec 20mg, approaching that achievable with conventional systems prilosec 10 mg with amex. Further refinement of these systems will lead to improvements in the design of the catalytic site cheap 40mg prilosec with mastercard, and its surrounds buy cheap prilosec 40 mg online, and the prospects for this area of catalysis are exciting buy prilosec 40mg online. One of the strongest current trends in the industry is towards green chemistry, which will involve redisign of many of these processes for the preparation of this bewildering array of products. Much success has already been achieved, and many major products are now pro- duced using green technologies. Much remains to be done, however, and several approaches are currently being investigated. One of the most excit- ing is the development of new materials which can function as catalysts, and whose structures can be fine tuned for the application in mind. The rate of the advances made in the last eight years of the twentieth century has been remarkable, and further advances will allow these fascinating materials to contribute greatly to the quality of life for everyone in the twenty-first century. Further Chemistry on the inside 73 work will reveal advanced catalytic systems, possibly containing more than one type of active site, and the control over pore dimensions will allow an ever-increasing level of control over selectivity towards the desired product. The ability to incorporate polarity-modifying groups will also play a major role in transport processes, of great importance in both catalysis and membrane processes. Many other opportunities exist due to the enormous flexibility of the preparative method, and the ability to incorporate many different species. Very recently, a great deal of work has been published concerning methods of producing these materials with specific physical forms, such as spheres, discs and fibres. Such possibilities will pave the way to new application areas such as molecular wires, where the silica fibre acts as an insulator, and the inside of the pore is filled with a metal or indeed a conducting polymer, such that nanoscale wires and electronic devices can be fabri- cated. Initial work on the production of highly porous electrodes has already been successfully carried out, and the extension to uni-directional bundles of wires will no doubt soon follow. The ability to produce threads, discs and spheres of defined size and structure will be of great importance when the very promising initial results from catalytic studies are applied on a larger scale. Processes using heterogeneous catalysts require the ability to control particle size and shape in order to ensure good mixing of all the reaction components, and separations after reaction. A further application of this technology will certainly be the fabrica- tion of membranes of these materials. Membrane reactors have shown great utility in many systems, where one component of a reaction mixture can be separated by permeation through a membrane, thus driving a reac- tion forwards, by continuous separation. Looking further ahead, the pores in these materials could be consid- ered as analogous to ion channels in cell walls. The encapsulation of the enzyme inside the cell could then possibly be used to protect the enzyme from harsh conditions outside the cell, while allowing reaction components to diffuse in, react, and diffuse out again. Already, some effort is being expended on silica/biological composites, with significant advances being made. MACQUARRIE discovery of the MTSs in 1992, such major advances will no doubt become reality in the early years of the twenty-first century. May School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS81TS, UK Diamond has some of the most extreme physical properties of any material, yet its practical use in science or engineering has been limited due its scarcity and expense. With the recent development of techniques for depositing thin films of diamond on a variety of substrate materials, we now have the ability to exploit these superlative properties in many new and exciting applications. In this paper, we shall explain the basic science and technology underlying the chemical vapour deposition of diamond thin films, and show how this is leading to the development of diamond as a twenty-first century engineering material. They were prized for their scarcity for centuries, and still remain a symbol of wealth and prestige to this day. Diamonds were first mined in India over 4000 years ago, but the modern diamond era only began in 1866, when huge diamond deposits were discovered in Kimberley, South Africa, creating a huge rush of European prospectors. The wealth this created helped to underwrite the British Empire, and changed the fates of many African countries. Apart from their appeal as gemstones, diamonds possess a remarkable 75 76 P. Some of the outstanding properties of diamond • Hardest known material giving extreme wear resistance • Highest bulk modulus, i. Indeed, a glance at any compendium of material data properties will prove that diamond is almost always ‘the biggest and best’. Amongst other properties, diamond is the hardest known material, has the highest thermal conductivity at room temperature, is transparent over a very wide wavelength range, is the stiffest material, the least compressible, and is inert to most chemical reagents. With such a wide range of excep- tional properties, it is not surprising that diamond has sometimes been referred to as ‘the ultimate engineering material’. Unfortunately, it has proved very difficult to exploit these properties, due both to the cost and scarcity of large natural diamonds, and the fact that diamond was only available in the form of stones or grit.

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