By V. Torn. Mercer University.

Does a muscle group show in- hype by the seller zestoretic 17.5 mg line, and alternative medicine ap- creased paresis with a few repetitive contrac- proaches into perspective zestoretic 17.5 mg cheap. Nor does the com- problems related only to the cerebral injury zestoretic 17.5mg free shipping, or pulsive clinician ever disregard the insights of does a metabolic abnormality generic 17.5 mg zestoretic visa, a medication or buy discount zestoretic 17.5mg on-line, the rest of the team. A modest decline in at- in an older person, an underlying dementia tention span or exercise tolerance noted by the 218 Common Practices Across Disorders speech therapist or occupational therapist may should insist on definable interventions. If one mean, for example, incipient sepsis, a new approach is not working, a different approach metabolic complication, or side effects of a can then be defined and tested. A few minutes of assessment and measures of success, such as changes in the explanation prevents lost opportunities to un- time needed to eat a meal or walk 50 feet, help cover unrecognized problems and misunder- label success beyond nonparametirc tools that standings. Vigilance is necessary in regard to are used to define levels of independence (see identifying inpatient and outpatient medical Chapter 7). System For Medical Rehabilitation14 helps put During outpatient care, physicians must de- features of the recovery of impairments and dis- velop their skills at counseling about matters abilities into perspective. This information such as exercise13 and specific directions about stimulates collective deliberations that may build home practice paradigms for motor and cogni- a consensus toward alternative solutions and the tive retraining. I make it a point to review the design of a single-case study or larger clinical details of how the patient is practicing to im- trial. Newly shared knowledge gives the team a prove the functional use of an affected upper greater sense of competence and gets all re- extremity, language and memory skills, and so- thinking what they do. For pa- Responsibilities tients with chronic diseases that progress, prac- tice is perhaps even more important, since it Inpatient rehabilitation nurses monitor the may spur gradual neural reorganization to vexing medical complications that accompany maintain function (see Chapter 3). A follow-up by 1 month after inpatient patient every 2 hours, along with other meas- discharge and at 3 and 6 months for disabled ures to prevent pressure ulcers over bony patients will allow adjustments in the formal prominences. They protect patients from be- and informal rehabilitation program, changes in ing pulled across the bed, which can shear the assistive devices and braces, and ascertainment skin, and work out ways to prevent inconti- of community resources over the time that most nence so that moisture does not macerate the patients make their fastest improvements. Nurses also educate ancillary hospital per- With a background in general medicine, sonnel who might tug and sublux a paretic neuromedicine, neuroscience, mechanisms of shoulder. Other responsibilities include assess- plasticity, and scientific experimentation, reha- ments for sleep disorders such as apneic spells, bilitation physicians should serve as clinician- respiratory function, swallowing, nutrition, and scientists. The physician can encourage thera- bowel and bladder function; training in self- pists to weigh, formulate, and test strategies. During ward rounds Nurses check supine and sitting or standing and team meetings, a good leader amiably ques- blood pressure and pulse rate when indicated tions whether particular practices of the team and can teach hypertensive patients and their reflect the best means of restoration for a families how do use a digital blood pressure patient. Diabetics are taught The Rehabilitation Team 219 about diet, exercise, medications, and glucose PHYSICAL THERAPISTS self-monitoring techniques. A nurse practi- tioner can be a great asset to the physician and Responsibilities team on a busy inpatient service, especially in a university hospital, where patients tend to Physical therapists or physiotherapists (PTs) have complex medical illnesses and needs. Interventions Their assessments emphasize measures of vol- untary movement, sensory appreciation, range Nurses are on the front line, where they must of motion, strength, balance, fatigability, mo- help balance between what a patient can rea- bility and gait, and functional status. They have to be attuned to fluctua- toward compensatory strategies for carrying tions in the stamina and alertness of their pa- out ADLs, such as the use of a wheelchair, as tients that may affect taking fluids and per- well as interventions to lessen specific impair- forming ADLs. Therapists play a pri- family in less structured activities, away from mary role in managing musculoskeletal and the formal therapy provided by other team radicular pain, contractures, spasticity, and members, nurses provide unique insight into deconditioning. Nurses are Like other rehabilitationists, PTs have in- also in an ideal position to get patients to com- creasingly sought strategies to improve the ac- ply with lifestyle changes for disease preven- curacy and reproducibility of clinical evalua- tion. Two broad physician, psychologist, and social worker, they categories of exercise programs, therapeutic can initiate discussions about drug abuse with exercise and the so-called neurophysiologic young patients on a TBI or SCI unit. For new and neurodevelopmental approaches, have re- medication that will be used after hospital dis- ceived the most attention in the past. Newer charge, nurses can develop cues and rituals concepts related to neuroplasticity, motor con- with the patient and caregiver that reinforce trol, and how motor skills are learned are merg- compliance. The Association of Rehabilitation from the dynamic interplay between multiple Nurses has excellent resources for continuing CNS, peripheral, and biomechanical systems education (www. Practices in Physical and Occupational Therapy Therapeutic exercise and reeducation Massed practice Neurofacilitation techniques Biofeedback Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation Virtual environment training Bobath Musculoskeletal techniques Brunnstrom Rood Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation Motor skills learning Orthotics and assistive devices Task-oriented practice Forced use 220 Common Practices Across Disorders constrained by the environment. The schools of neurofacilitation generally Success in retraining during rehabilitation frown upon attempts to strengthen muscles depends on diverse variables that include the that are hypertonic (see next section). The con- characteristics of a task, changing contexts and cern is that this leads to heightened spasticity environments when performing a task, psy- and diminished motor control. Strengthening chological reinforcements, motivation, atten- exercises, however, may be underutilized by tion, memory for carry-over of what is taught, therapists who are aiming only for compensa- environmental distractions, anxiety, sleep dep- tory gains in function or for more precise mo- rivation, and family support.

It include bleeding or ulceration (most often with aspirin occurs within a few minutes after drug administra- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents) and severe tion and requires emergency treatment with epineph- diarrhea/colitis (most often with antibiotics) order 17.5mg zestoretic with mastercard. Hematologic effects (blood coagulation disorders cheap zestoretic 17.5 mg with mastercard, occur 1 to 2 weeks after the drug is given discount zestoretic 17.5 mg overnight delivery. Drug fever is a fever associated with administration leukopenia buy 17.5mg zestoretic with visa, agranulocytosis buy zestoretic 17.5mg visa, thrombocytopenia) are of a medication. Drugs can cause fever by several relatively common and potentially life threatening. Hepatotoxicity (hepatitis, liver dysfunction or failure, mechanism is an allergic reaction. Fever may occur biliary tract inflammation or obstruction) is potentially alone or with other allergic manifestations (eg, skin life threatening. Because most drugs are metabolized rash, hives, joint and muscle pain, enlarged lymph by the liver, the liver is especially susceptible to drug- glands, eosinophilia) and its pattern may be low induced injury. Drugs that are hepatotoxic include ac- grade and continuous or spiking and intermittent. It etaminophen (Tylenol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate may begin within hours after the first dose if the client (Mexate), phenytoin (Dilantin), and aspirin and other has taken the drug before, or within approximately salicylates. In the presence of drug- or disease-induced 10 days of continued administration if the drug is new liver damage, the metabolism of many drugs is im- to the client. Consequently, drugs metabolized by the liver fever usually subsides within 48 to 72 hours unless 24 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO DRUG THERAPY drug excretion is delayed or significant tissue dam- must have a high index of suspicion so that toxicity can be age has occurred (eg, hepatitis). Many drugs have been implicated as causes of drug fever, including most antimicrobials, several cardiovascular agents (eg, beta blockers, hydralazine, Drug Overdose: General Management methyldopa, procainamide, quinidine), drugs with anti- cholinergic properties (eg, atropine, some antihista- Most poisoned or overdosed clients are treated in emergency mines, phenothiazine antipsychotic agents, and tricyclic rooms and discharged to their homes. Idiosyncrasy refers to an unexpected reaction to a ness and the need for endotracheal intubation and mechani- drug that occurs the first time it is given. Serious cardiovascular effects mind-altering drugs, such as opioid analgesics, (eg, cardiac arrest, dysrhythmias, circulatory impairment) are sedative-hypnotic agents, antianxiety agents, and CNS also common and warrant admission to an ICU. Dependence may be physiologic or psy- The main goals of treatment for a poisoned patient are sup- chological. Physiologic dependence produces unpleas- porting and stabilizing vital functions (ie, airway, breathing, ant physical symptoms when the dose is reduced or circulation), preventing further damage from the toxic agent the drug is withdrawn. Psychological dependence by reducing additional absorption or increasing elimination, leads to excessive preoccupation with drugs and drug- and administering specific antidotes when available and in- seeking behavior. Carcinogenicity is the ability of a substance to cause antidotes are listed in Table 2–2; and specific aspects of care cancer. Several drugs are carcinogens, including are described in relevant chapters. For patient who are seriously ill on first contact, enlist ity apparently results from drug-induced alterations in help for more rapid assessment and treatment. Teratogenicity is the ability of a substance to cause ingestion leads to better patient outcomes. Standard cardiopulmonary Toxic Effects of Drugs resuscitation (CPR) measures may be needed to maintain breathing and circulation. An intravenous (IV) line is Drug toxicity (also called poisoning, overdose, or intoxica- usually needed to administer fluids and drugs, and inva- tion) results from excessive amounts of a drug and may sive treatment or monitoring devices may be inserted. It Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation is a common problem in both adult and pediatric popula- are often required to maintain breathing (in uncon- tions. It may result from a single large dose or prolonged scious patients), correct hypoxemia, and protect the ingestion of smaller doses. Hypoxemia must be corrected quickly to avoid scription, over-the-counter, or illicit drugs. Poisoned pa- brain injury, myocardial ischemia, and cardiac dys- tients may be seen in essentially any setting (e. In some cases, the patient or someone accompanying the Serious cardiovascular manifestations often require patient may know the toxic agent (eg, accidental overdose of pharmacologic treatment. Hypotension and hypoperfu- a therapeutic drug, use of an illicit drug, a suicide attempt). Dysrhythmias are treated according to Advanced causative drug or drugs are unknown, and the circumstances Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocols. For unconscious patients, as soon as an IV line is es- and may indicate other disease processes. Because of the vari- tablished, some authorities recommend a dose of able presentation of drug intoxication, health care providers naloxone (2 mg IV) for possible narcotic overdose CHAPTER 2 BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES 25 TABLE 2–2 Antidotes for Overdoses of Selected Therapeutic Drugs Overdosed Drug (Poison) Antidote Route and Dosage Ranges Comments Acetaminophen (see Chap.

Overall safe 17.5mg zestoretic, activation of the SA and AV nodes depends on a slow Cardiac dysrhythmias can originate in any part of the con- depolarizing current through calcium channels discount 17.5mg zestoretic with visa, and activation duction system or from atrial or ventricular muscle discount zestoretic 17.5 mg overnight delivery. They re- of the atria and ventricles depends on a rapid depolarizing cur- sult from disturbances in electrical impulse formation rent through sodium channels buy generic zestoretic 17.5mg online. These two types of conduction (automaticity) zestoretic 17.5mg for sale, conduction (conductivity), or both. The char- tissues are often called slow and fast channels, respectively, acteristic of automaticity allows myocardial cells other than and they differ markedly in their responses to drugs that affect the SA node to depolarize and initiate the electrical impulse conduction of electrical impulses. This may The ability of a cardiac muscle cell to respond to an electri- occur when the SA node fails to initiate an impulse or does cal stimulus is called excitability or irritability. When the electrical impulse arises anywhere must reach a certain intensity or threshold to cause contraction. If After contraction, sodium and calcium ions return to the extra- the ectopic focus depolarizes at a rate faster than the SA node, cellular space, potassium ions return to the intracellular space, the ectopic focus becomes the dominant pacemaker. Ectopic muscle relaxation occurs, and the cell prepares for the next pacemakers may arise in the atria, AV node, Purkinje fibers, electrical stimulus and contraction. They may be activated by hypoxia, Following contraction there is also a period of decreased ex- ischemia, or hypokalemia. Ectopic foci indicate myocardial citability (called the absolute refractory period) during which the cell cannot respond to a new stimulus. Before the resting irritability (increased responsiveness to stimuli) and potentially membrane potential is reached, a stimulus greater than normal serious impairment of cardiac function. This period is called the rela- A common mechanism by which abnormal conduction tive refractory period. During nor- mal conduction, the electrical impulse moves freely down the conduction system until it reaches recently excited tissue that Conductivity is refractory to stimulation. The SA node then recovers, fires spontaneously, Conductivity is the ability of cardiac tissue to transmit elec- and the conduction process starts over again. Although the electrophysiology of a single tion means that an impulse continues to reenter an area of the myocardial cell can assist understanding of the process, the or- heart rather than becoming extinguished. For this to occur, derly, rhythmic transmission of impulses to all cells is needed the impulse must encounter an obstacle in the normal con- for effective myocardial contraction. The obstacle is usually an area of damage, Normally, electrical impulses originate in the SA node and such as myocardial infarction. The damaged area allows con- are transmitted to atrial muscle, where they cause atrial con- duction in only one direction and causes a circular movement traction, and then to the AV node, bundle of His, bundle of the impulse (Fig. The normal heart Indications for Use can maintain an adequate cardiac output with ventricular rates ranging from 40 to 180 beats per minute. The diseased heart, Antidysrhythmic drug therapy commonly is indicated in the however, may not be able to maintain an adequate cardiac out- following conditions: put with heart rates below 60 or above 120. To convert atrial fibrillation (AF) or flutter to normal usually categorized by rate, location, or patterns of conduction. When the ventricular rate is so fast or irregular that car- diac output is impaired. Decreased cardiac output leads ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS to symptoms of decreased systemic, cerebral, and coro- nary circulation. Atropine for bradydysrhythmias is discussed in if not quickly terminated. For example, ventricular Chapter 21; digoxin and its use in treating atrial fibrillation tachycardia may cause cardiac arrest. These drugs are described in the following sections and listed in Drugs at a Glance: Mechanisms of Action Antidysrhythmic Drugs. Clinical use of antidysrhythmic drugs for tachydysrhyth- Drugs used for rapid dysrhythmias mainly reduce automatic- mias has undergone significant changes. One change is that ity (spontaneous depolarization of myocardial cells, including the goal of drug therapy is to prevent or relieve symptoms or ectopic pacemakers), slow conduction of electrical impulses prolong survival, not just suppress dysrhythmias. This change through the heart, and prolong the refractory period of myo- resulted from studies in which clients treated for some dys- cardial cells (so they are less likely to be prematurely activated rhythmias had a higher mortality rate than clients who did not by adjacent cells). Several different groups of drugs perform receive antidysrhythmic drug therapy. They are classified according to rate was attributed to prodysrhythmic effects (ie, worsening their mechanisms of action and effects on the conduction sys- existing dysrhythmias or causing new dysrhythmias). Additionally, all, there is decreasing use of class I drugs (eg, quinidine) and some drugs have characteristics of more than one classification.

10 of 10 - Review by V. Torn
Votes: 302 votes
Total customer reviews: 302



Get Involved

> Newsletters
About Us
> Contact Information
> Mission and vision
> Who support us
> In the press
> CoopXixuaú
Where we are
> Education
> Healthcare
> Conservation
> Scientific Research
> Transport
> Solar energy and Internet
> Getting Reddy Project
> Trip to the Amazon - Special
> Trip to the Amazon - Information
> Trip to the Amazon - Booking
Media centre
> Images
> Videos
> Sounds