By H. Grim. New School of Architecture and Design.

Reich wanted to develop diagnostic and therapeutic methods founded on energy imbalances of orgone abilify 10mg with visa. However abilify 20 mg visa, it was not his "energy" vision of the nature of human beings that brought down on him the wrath of the anti-fraud squad; it was more his political and economic ideas buy abilify 15 mg line, and his questioning of the capitalist economic system cheap 15 mg abilify amex. To Reich generic abilify 10mg fast delivery, all diseases were matters of bioenergetic imbalances — but his orgone apparatuses never proved their effect or the reality of his theories. Geobiology and Cosmo-Telluric Networks Attempts to explain the phenomena of dowsing gave rise to theo- retical systems freely combining unfounded notions of physics and magic. Geobiology became a favorite playground for those intrigued by "magnetic" interpretations, especially given the endorsement by people like Rocard. Facile extrapolations led to dubious amalgams between medical/scientific knowledge on the one hand and absurd theories on the other hand. For the geo-biologist, any ailment can stem from an artificial nui- sance — electrical pollution, magnetic or cosmic rays, faulty construc- tion materials. But geo-biologists are not satisfied with denouncing natural radioactivity, like that in the granite from Brittany that was used in construction; they go out of their way to highlight subtle forms of pollution like the "memory of the walls", "charged atmospheres", and — why not — "humiliation waves". Consequently, the geo- biologist’s toolkit is as good as the Ghost Busters’; and it draws its ref- erences from a magical and fascinating past. Places where people felt ill at ease, where they noted health or mental ailments after staying there for a period of time, were regarded as suspect or even cursed. The Romans grazed their sheep on land that was scheduled for development; after a year passed, they slaughtered the sheep and examined their livers. And the American Indians, before establishing a long-term camp, watched how the wild horses in the region behaved; they pitched their tents in the location that the 6 animals preferred. Needless to say, "medical observations" support the reasoning of our geobiologists. Haviland, in his work Geography of the Diseases of the Heart, Phthisis and Cancer, was one of the first to note that cancer did not exist at higher elevations and dry ground, whereas a very strong proportion of this disease could be observed along rivers. Jenny, of Switzerland, are even more spectacular: over a twelve-year period, he tested more than 24,000 mice that had been placed either in a neutral zone or in a geo-pathogenic zone. The first had a normal life and were calm, whereas the second group was very irritable, chewed the screen on their cage, devoured their own young and had a 30% higher incidence of tumors than the animals living in the neutral zone. W ild imaginings do not hold up over time if they don’t have at least a veneer of scientific credibility. Therefore, the geo-biologists built a theoretical arsenal founded on the concept of a cosmo- telluric network — the Hartmann network and the Curry network. The Hartmann Network: Scientists have focused on this question of harmful zones and neutral zones, and they have established the existence of a telluric matrix, which has been named for Dr. It consists of (magnetic) bands that are oriented North-South and East- W est, which function like invisible "walls" that are some 21 cm thick. The grid of the network normally forms rectangles which, at our lati- tude and in an environment that is not too disturbed, have following dimensions: 2 meters in the North-South direction; 2. The Hartmann network is known as "telluric", for it takes root in the ground and rises vertically, going through dwellings and slabs of rein- 123 Healing or Stealing? This grid is made up of bands approximately 40 cm broad, and is oriented at a diagonal to the Hartmann network. W hen a Curry band crosses an intersection on the Hartmann net- work, this zone is particularly active. If intersections of both net- works happen to coincide and are superimposed, then we have a zone that is even more active. If one or other network happens to be su- perimposed over a fault, a watercourse or a spring, etc. These networks are reckoned to affect human health, and the geo- biologists extended their competence to a new patascience: the "medicine of the habitat", which aims to cure disturbances induced by a poorly situated bed, water pipelines, or the house more generally. Certain forms of heating and air-conditioning systems encourage the destruction of negative ions — whereas ions improve, among other things, the operation of the endocrine system. In parallel, this mod- ern comfort causes the positive ions to multiply, and they contribute to weakness and various disorders. Current building techniques: slabs of reinforced concrete, metal girders — themselves generate magnetic fields that influence the people who live in these buildings; and let’s not forget poorly grounded electrical circuits and grounding stakes that happen to be located on a "geopathogenic" point. And so, geobiologists not only sell their services, they market de- tection equipment: "lobe-antennas", "parallel rods", "wave detectors" of every kind, derived from the voltmeter and ammeter but sold, you may be sure, at hefty prices.

Two distinct directions (not just one) are associated with stress abilify 15mg mastercard, the direction of the force and the direc- tion of the surface area on which the force acts cheap abilify 20 mg mastercard. Scalars such as temperature and mass are said to be tensors of the zero order; vectors are tensors of first order buy discount abilify 20 mg on line. When u 5 0 purchase 10 mg abilify with visa, then the normal stress takes its largest value (s 5 F/A) whereas the shear stress becomes equal to zero generic abilify 10mg free shipping. On the other hand, when u 5 p/4, then the shear stress assumes its maximum value (t 5 0. The evaluation of the maximal values of shear and normal stress is important in the consideration of failure of a material. Some materials fail easily under tension (compression) and others fail readily under shear stress. Concrete is not resilient to tension whereas steel can withstand both tension and compression. If the circular cylinder under consideration had low resistance to shear but high resistance to tension, it would fail in the form of a tear that occurs at 45° relative to the axis of the cylinder. As illustrated by the previous examples, in many cases Newton’s sec- ond law allows us to compute contact forces and the resultant internal forces at a cross section. Once we know the resultant force carried by a structural member, we can compute the average stress by dividing the value of the force with the cross-sectional area of the planar cross section. The question that comes to mind is how close is the average stress to the actual stress. The large body of literature in solid mechanics allow us to provide some insights. First, in the presence of cracks or holes, the aver- age stress is not an accurate indicator of the actual stress. Also, if the cross section cuts across a number of different materials with different stiffness, stress in the material with higher stiffness may be greater than the one with lower stiffness. We can illustrate this by considering a cylindrical speci- men consisting of two materials under the action of a tensile force (Fig. Imagine this to represent a long limb of the human body, a long bone surrounded by soft tissue. The total force acting on the cross sec- tion must be equal to F, and this leads to the following equation: F 5 s p r 2 1 s p (r 2 2 r 2) (6. We assume that planar cross sections that are normal to the axis of the specimen remain plane and normal to the axis. Thus, every line element parallel to the axis of the specimen un- dergoes the same extension D. A circular cylindrical r specimen made of two different ma- 1 r terials is under tensile force (a). The mate- r r rial occupying the core of the cylin- 2 1 der is stiffer than that of the outer L σ shell. If the cross-sectional areas of the two ma- terials are comparable and if E1 is much greater than E2, then material 1 carries much of the force applied on the specimen. This would be the case of a relaxed limb that is under tension; bone would carry much of the ap- plied load. Approximately 30% of the cross-sectional area is bone and the rest is composed of muscle and fat tissue. Because the fat tissue is much more compliant than muscle, it would carry practically no force. The cross-sectional area that effectively carries the traction force must be that of the cross-sectional area of the muscle and the bone. In the fol- lowing, we briefly review the physical properties of a muscle fiber, mea- sured in vitro, and then move on to the properties of whole muscles. The fiber will elongate rapidly in response to the applied load and then will appear to reach a steady-state configu- ration. The experi- ment is continued in this fashion with the addition of extra load and al- (a) A (b) σ contracting muscle L resting muscle ε B W 1. The isometric stress–strain re- lation of the fiber during passive relaxed state and fully contracted isometric state is shown in (b).

More than 60% of the cases are diagnosed in the first 20 years of life; 44% are lo- cated totally or partially in the cervical spinal canal abilify 20 mg cheap, 37% are located in the thoracic spinal canal cheap abilify 20 mg otc, and 19% in the lumbosacral spinal canal effective abilify 10 mg. The neurological signs and symptoms of a slowly progressing mass are as- sociated by congenital anomalies buy abilify 10mg online, such as thickened or pigmented skin buy abilify 20mg cheap, a cutaneous dimple or dermal sinus, or a tuft of hair may occur in the midline of the back Epidermoid and der- These account for 0. At least 62% of dermoid cysts and 63% of epidermoid cysts occur at or below the thoracolumbar junction. Among intraspinal dermoids, 30% are wholly or partially in- tramedullary in location, and 28% of intraspinal epidermoids are wholly or partially intramedullary. With regard to associated defects, 25% of cases have posterior spina bifida, and 34% of dermoid cysts and 20% of epidermoid cysts occur in patients with a pos- terior dermal sinus tract. Eleven of 12 sinus tracts in Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Pediatric Intraspinal Cysts 223 the thoracic region terminated in intradural congenital tumor. CT and MRI have proved useful in the diagnostic work-up; there is a high signal on T1-weighted and T2- weighted images Arachnoid cysts These cysts consist of arachnoid, and are filled with CSF. The cysts are not associated with spinal dys- raphism or any other congenital anomalies. They are initially asymptomatic, but when they enlarge in size they can cause back pain, usually re- lieved when the patient lies down, radicular pain, and paraparesis. On MRI, a focal impression of the cord can be seen, with an intensity similar to that of CSF without enhancement – Developmental – Inflammatory – Posttraumatic Ependymal (neuro- A thin wall consisting of connective tissue lined by a epithelial) cysts single layer of cells that resemble ependymal cells, similar to a neurenteric cyst. In contrast to the latter, however, the epithelium of the ependymal cells does not have a basement membrane or contain mucin. These cysts are located between C2 and L5, but nearly 45% are at the thoracolumbar junction, and most have intramedullary extensions Other intramedullary A few intramedullary cysts occur within the conus, cysts of the conus and have a thin, transparent wall cyst consisting of medullaris narrow bands of glial tissue lined by a layer of ependy- mal cells Spinal cysticercosis The average incidence of intraspinal forms is about 5–6%. The parasites grow in the subarachnoid spinal space, forming multiple cysts, rather than within the spinal cord, where the cysts are usually solitary. The specific diagnosis can be suspected if there is known disease elsewhere, or if there is either eosino- philia in the CSF or a positive complement fixation test for cysticercosis Chronic spinal sub- dural hematomas CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; CT: computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Its neck eventually closes, creating a cyst that no longer communicates with the CSF space. The cysts are located exclusively or primarily in the thoracic spine in 86% of cases, and less frequently in the cervical region (2. Nearly 40% of patients with congenital extradural spinal cysts have Scheuermann’s disease (kyphosis dorsalis juvenilis) or preoperative dorsal kyphosis without definite vertebral epiphysitis Spontaneous spinal These cysts are extensions of the subarachnoid space nerve root diverticula along spinal nerve roots primarily located on the pos- and cysts (Tarlov cysts) terior spinal nerve roots and spinal ganglia, containing fluid that is either clear and colorless or faintly yellow. Occasionally, a perineural cyst can become large enough to cause a sciatic or cauda equina syndrome Occult intrasacral These result from a defect in the embryological meningoceles development of the spinal meninges in the sacral area, and become symptomatic in adult life, causing pain and urinary dysfunction—suggesting that it en- larges with time, probably due to the hydrostatic effect of the CSF Posttraumatic or post- After spinal fracture dislocation or nerve root avulsion, operative meningeal or after operative laminectomy, the CSF collects and diverticula stimulates the formation of a pseudomeningocele Spinal ganglion cysts Cysts arising from the periarticular tissue are distin- and spinal synovial guished from synovial cysts if they have a synovial lin- cysts ing, and from ganglion cysts if they have no specific lining. Most often, they occur in the posterolateral epidural space, attached to or adjacent to the facet joint at the L4–5 vertebral level, and they are pri- marily unilateral Extradural spinal hy- In about 1–2. They are located in the cervical spine (10%), thoracic spine (50%), lumbar spine (20%), and sacral spine (20%). CT is good at demonstrating the initial involvement of spongy bone, and MRI appears to provide greater detail concerning neural involvement than CT Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Myelopathy in Cancer Patients 225 Spinal cysts associated Rarely, ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with with ankylosing multiple meningeal diverticula, extending into the spondylitis posterior bony arches of the lumbar spinal canal Ependymal cysts, These are similar but less frequent than their intra- neurenteric cysts, dural counterparts epidermoid and der- moid cysts Aneurysmal bone cyst This benign pediatric vascular tumor occurs as a soli- tary lesion in a long bone or vertebra, especially in the lumbar area. The interior of the cyst is composed of blood- filled cavernous spaces with fibrous walls that contain osteoid and giant cells, and are covered by a thin bony shell. Pain involving the back or neck is an early symptom, and as the tumor enlarges into the spinal canal, symptoms of cord compression or radi- culopathy may develop Other spinal extradural A large midline mesothelial cyst extending from L5 to cysts S3 with a translucent wall and filled with xantho- chromic fluid, and also an intradiskal cyst postopera- tively filled with straw-colored fluid, have been re- ported CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; CT: computed tomography. Myelopathy in Cancer Patients Metastatic cancer – Epidural – Leptomeningeal – Intramedullary Toxicity from therapy – Radiation myelopathy – Myelopathy due to chemotherapy – Infectious disease – Vascular disease – Paraneoplastic syndromes Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Disorders of the Spinal Nerve Roots 227 Disorders of the Spinal Nerve Roots Radicular pain in nerve E. Pain is aggra- root distribution vated by: cough (increased intraspinal pressure); movement of that part of the spine; and stretching (e. The disorders may affect the spinal roots in the spinal canal or intervertebral foramen Intrinsic lesions – Herpes zoster – Tabes dorsalis – Inflammatory "radi- culitis" Compressive lesions – Intervertebral disk protrusion – Bony lesions!

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