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By O. Ningal. Lasell College. 2018.

On the other hand 162.5mg avalide with mastercard, the information your friend gives you buy avalide 162.5 mg online, and the chance to use her iPod buy 162.5mg avalide overnight delivery, are highly salient generic avalide 162.5mg. The information is right there in front of you discount avalide 162.5mg line, in your hand, whereas the statistical information from Consumer Reports is only in the form of a table that you saw on your computer. The outcome in cases such as this is that people frequently ignore the less salient but more important information, such as the likelihood that events occur across a large population (these statistics are known as base rates), in favor of the less important but nevertheless more salient information. People also vary in the schemas that they find important to use when judging others and when thinking about themselves. Cognitive accessibility refers tothe extent to which knowledge is activated in memory, and thus likely to be used in cognition and behavior. For instance, you probably know a person who is a golf nut (or fanatic of another sport). Because he loves golf, it is important to his self-concept, he sets many of his goals in terms of the sport, and he tends to think about things and people in terms of it (“if he plays golf, he must be a good person! Other people have highly accessible schemas about environmental issues, eating healthy food, or drinking really good coffee. When schemas are highly accessible, we are likely to use them to Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Counterfactual Thinking In addition to influencing our judgments about ourselves and others, the ease with which we can retrieve potential experiences from memory can have an important effect on our own emotions. If we can easily imagine an outcome that is better than what actually happened, then we may experience sadness and disappointment; on the other hand, if we can easily imagine that a result might have been worse than what actually happened, we may be more likely to experience happiness and satisfaction. The tendency to think about and experience events according to “what might have been‖ is known ascounterfactual thinking (Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Roese, [26] 2005). Imagine, for instance, that you were participating in an important contest, and you won the silver (second-place) medal. Certainly you would be happy that you won the silver medal, but wouldn‘t you also be thinking about what might have happened if you had been just a little bit better—you might have won the gold medal! If you were thinking about the counterfactuals (the “what might have beens‖) perhaps the idea of not getting any medal at all would have been highly accessible; you‘d be happy that you got the medal that you did get, rather than coming in fourth. They videotaped the athletes both as they learned that they had won a silver or a bronze medal and again as they were awarded the medal. Then the researchers showed these videos, without any sound, to raters who did not know which medal which athlete had won. In a follow-up study, raters watched interviews with many of these same athletes as they talked about their performance. The raters indicated what we would expect on the basis of counterfactual thinking—the silver medalists talked about their disappointments in having finished second rather than first, whereas the bronze medalists focused on how happy they were to have finished third rather than fourth. I really wanted to make it home when I got near the end of my journey; I would have been extremely disappointed if the car broke down only a few miles from my home. Perhaps you have noticed that once you get close to finishing something, you feel like you really need to get it done. Jurors who were asked to award monetary damages to others who had been in an accident offered them substantially more in compensation if they barely avoided injury than they offered if the accident seemed inevitable (Miller, Turnbull, & McFarland, [29] 1988). Psychology in Everyday Life: Cognitive Biases in the Real World Perhaps you are thinking that the kinds of errors that we have been talking about don‘t seem that important. After all, who really cares if we think there are more words that begin with the letter ―R‖ than there actually are, or if bronze medal winners are happier than the silver medalists? But it turns out that what seem to be relatively small cognitive biases on the surface can have profound consequences for people. Why would so many people continue to purchase lottery tickets, buy risky investments in the stock market, or gamble their money in casinos when the likelihood of them ever winning is so low? One possibility is that they are victims of salience; they focus their attention on the salient likelihood of a big win, forgetting that the base rate of the event occurring is very low. The belief in astrology, which all scientific evidence suggests is not accurate, is probably driven in part by the salience of the occasions when the predictions are correct. People may also take more care to prepare for unlikely events than for more likely ones, because the unlikely ones are more salient. For instance, people may think that they are more likely to die from a terrorist attack or a homicide than they are from diabetes, stroke, or tuberculosis. And people are frequently more afraid of flying than driving, although the likelihood of dying in a car crash is hundreds of times greater than dying in a plane crash (more than 50,000 people are killed on U.

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Nursing re- are best communicated through aesthetic media to sponses to calls for caring evolve as nurses clarify preserve the lived meaning of the situation and the their understandings of calls through presence and openness of the situation as text purchase 162.5 mg avalide free shipping. Sensitivity and skill in creating unique and effective ways of communicating caring are devel- His eyes meet mine buy generic avalide 162.5mg, oped through intention buy discount avalide 162.5 mg, experience cheap 162.5mg avalide with visa, study buy avalide 162.5 mg otc, and Unable to speak, reflection in a broad range of human situations. It is the loving relation into which nurse Our bond is made, Unspoken thoughts, But understood, The caring between is the source and I care for him! Collins (1993) and nursed enter and cocreate by living the inten- Each encounter—each nursing experience— tion to care. In Collins’s reflections, ing between, unidirectional activity or reciprocal he shares a story of practice that illuminates the exchange can occur, but nursing in its fullest sense opportunity to live and grow in caring. It is in the context of the caring be- In the nursing situation that inspired this poem, tween that personhood is enhanced, each express- the nurse and nursed live caring uniquely. This al- particular experience of nursing and linked to a lows him to see past the “anger-filled” room and to general conception of nursing. By living caring moment to moment, hope emerges and fear My hands are moist, subsides. Through this experience, both nurse and My heart is quick, nursed live and grow in their understanding and My nerves are taut, expressions of caring. He’s in the next room, In the first stanza, the nurse prepares to enter the I care for him. Perhaps he It’s anger-filled, has heard a report that the person he is about to en- The air seems thick, counter is a “difficult patient,” and this is a part of I’m with him now, his awareness; however, his nursing intention to I care for him. In the second stanza, the nurse Time goes slowly by, enters the room, experiences the challenge that his As our fears subside, intention to nurse has presented, and responds to I can sense his calm, the call for authentic presence and caring:“I’m with He softens now, him now/I care for him. The nurse listens intently and the College of Nursing at Florida Atlantic recognizes the unadorned honesty that sounds University, where both authors were among the fac- angry and demanding but is a personal expression ulty group revising the caring-based curriculum. The nurse responds with steadfast presence us recognized the potential and even the necessity and caring, communicated in his way of being and of continuing to develop and structure ideas and of doing. The caring ingredient of hope is drawn themes toward a comprehensive expression of the forth as the man softens and the nurse takes notice. The point of departure was the ac- ops, and personhood is enhanced as dreams and as- ceptance that caring is the end, rather than the pirations for growing in caring are realized: “His means, of nursing, and that caring is the intention eyes meet mine... This stanza, the nursing situation is completed in linear work led to the statement of focus of nursing as time. But each one, nurse and nursed, goes forward, “nurturing persons living caring and growing in newly affirmed and celebrated as caring person, and caring. The clarified focus and the idea of the nurs- In Collins’s poem, the power of the basic assump- ing situation are the key themes that draw forth the tion that all persons are caring by virtue of their meaning of the assumptions underlying the theory humanness enabled the nurse to find the courage to and permit the practical understanding of nursing live his intentions. As critique of and complete in the moment permits the nurse to the theory and study of nursing situations pro- accept conflicting feelings and to be open to the gressed, the notion of nursing being primarily con- nursed as a person, not merely as an entity with a cerned with health was seen as limiting, and we diagnosis and superficially or normatively under- now understand nursing to be concerned with stood behavior. Person- human mode of being was incorporated into the hood, a way of living grounded in caring that can most basic assumption of the theory. We view be enhanced in relationship with caring other, Paterson and Zderad’s (1988) existential phenome- comes through in that the nurse is successfully liv- nological theory of humanistic nursing as the his- ing his commitment to caring in the face of diffi- torical antecedent of nursing as caring. Seminal culty and in the mutuality and connectedness ideas such as “the between,” “call for nursing,” that emerged in the situation. Schoenhofer’s Nursing as Caring Theory 339 substantive and structural bases for our conceptu- ment and surveillance techniques. Mayeroff’s (1971) that is an insufficient response—it certainly is not work, On Caring, provided a language that facili- the nursing we advocate. The theory of nursing tated the recognition and description of the practi- as caring calls upon the nurse to reach deep within cal meaning of caring in nursing situations. In a well-developed knowledge base that has been addition to the work of these thinkers, both authors structured using all available patterns of knowing, are long-standing members of the community of grounded in the obligations and intentionality in- nursing scholars whose study focuses on caring and herent in the commitment to know persons as who are supported and undoubtedly influenced in caring. These patterns of knowing may develop many subtle ways by the members of this commu- knowledge as intuition; scientifically quantifiable nity and their work. All knowledge the first complete exposition of the theory pre- held by the nurse that may be relevant to under- sented at a theory conference in 1992 (Boykin & standing the situation at hand is drawn forward Schoenhofer, 1990, 1991; Schoenhofer & Boykin, and integrated as understanding that guides prac- 1993), followed by the work, Nursing As Caring: A tice in particular nursing situations (aesthetic Model for Transforming Practice, published in 1993 knowing). Although the degree of challenge pre- (Boykin & Schoenhofer, 1993) and re-released with sented from situation to situation varies, the com- an epilogue in 2001 (Boykin & Schoenhofer, 2001). The challenge for nursing, then, is not to (Boykin & Schoenhofer, 1997; Schoenhofer & discover what is missing, weakened, or needed in Boykin, 1998a, 1998b), and in consultation with another, but to come to know the other as caring graduate students, nursing faculties, and health- person and to nurture that person in situation- care agencies who are using aspects of the theory to specific, creative ways and to acknowledge, support, ground research, teaching, and practice.

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James and the other members of the functionalist school were influenced by Charles Darwin’s (1809–1882) theory of natural selection order avalide 162.5 mg fast delivery, which proposed that the physical characteristics of animals and humans evolved because they were useful discount avalide 162.5 mg amex, or functional generic avalide 162.5 mg without a prescription. The functionalists believed that Darwin‘s theory applied to psychological characteristics too avalide 162.5 mg online. Just as some animals have developed strong muscles to allow them to run fast generic 162.5 mg avalide fast delivery, the human brain, so functionalists thought, must have adapted to serve a particular function in human experience. Although functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, its basic principles have been absorbed into psychology and continue to influence it in many ways. The work of the functionalists has developed into the field ofevolutionary psychology, a branch of psychology that applies the Darwinian theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior(Dennett, [7] 1995; Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). Evolutionary psychology accepts the functionalists’ basic assumption, namely that many human psychological systems, including memory, emotion, and personality, serve key adaptive functions. As we will see in the chapters to come, evolutionary psychologists use evolutionary theory to understand many different behaviors including romantic attraction, stereotypes and prejudice, and even the causes of many psychological disorders. Fitness refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic. Fitter organisms pass on their genes more successfully to later generations, making the characteristics that produce fitness more likely to become part of the organism’s nature than characteristics that do not produce fitness. For example, it has been argued that the emotion of jealousy has survived over time in men because men who experience jealousy are more fit than men who do not. Despite its importance in psychological theorizing, evolutionary psychology also has some limitations. Unlike the fossils that are used to learn about the physical evolution of species, we cannot know which psychological characteristics our ancestors possessed or did not possess; we can only make guesses about this. Because it is difficult to directly test evolutionary theories, it is always possible that the explanations we apply are made up after the fact to account for observed data [9] (Gould & Lewontin, 1979). Nevertheless, the evolutionary approach is important to psychology because it provides logical explanations for why we have many psychological characteristics. Psychodynamic Psychology Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behavior, which was championed by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and his followers. Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories. Freud developed his theories about behavior through extensive analysis of the patients that he treated in his private clinical practice. Freud believed that many of the problems that his patients experienced, including anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction, were the result of the effects of painful childhood experiences that the person could no longer remember. Freud’s ideas were extended by other psychologists whom he influenced, including Carl Jung (1875–1961), Alfred Adler (1870–1937), Karen Horney (1855–1952), and Erik Erikson (1902– 1994). These and others who follow the psychodynamic approach believe that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the person‘s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms. Although they did not conduct much research on their ideas, and although later, more sophisticated tests of their theories have not always supported their proposals, psychodynamics has nevertheless had substantial impact on the field of psychology, and indeed on thinking about human behavior [10] more generally (Moore & Fine, 1995). The importance of the unconscious in human behavior, the idea that early childhood experiences are critical, and the concept of therapy as a way of improving human lives are all ideas that are derived from the psychodynamic approach and that remain central to psychology. Behaviorism and the Question of Free Will Although they differed in approach, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind. The psychologists associated with the school of behaviorism, on the other hand, were reacting in part to the difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behavior. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. Behaviorists believe that the human mind is a “black box‖ into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behavior without knowing what happens inside the mind. Furthermore, behaviorists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviors.

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Why would so many people continue to purchase lottery tickets discount avalide 162.5 mg without a prescription, buy risky investments in the stock market generic avalide 162.5mg online, or gamble their money in casinos when the likelihood of them ever winning is so low? One possibility is that they are victims of salience; they focus their attention on the salient likelihood of a big win buy avalide 162.5 mg, forgetting that the base rate of the event occurring is very low order 162.5 mg avalide amex. The belief in astrology discount avalide 162.5mg otc, which all scientific evidence suggests is not accurate, is probably driven in part by the salience of the occasions when the predictions are correct. People may also take more care to prepare for unlikely events than for more likely ones, because the unlikely ones are more salient. For instance, people may think that they are more likely to die from a terrorist attack or a homicide than they are from diabetes, stroke, or tuberculosis. And people are frequently more afraid of flying than driving, although the likelihood of dying in a car crash is hundreds of times greater than dying in a plane crash (more than 50,000 people are killed on U. Because people don‘t accurately calibrate their behaviors to match the true potential risks (e. Salience and accessibility also color how we perceive our social worlds, which may have a big influence on our behavior. For instance, people who watch a lot of violent television shows also view the world as more dangerous [31] (Doob & Macdonald, 1979), probably because violence becomes more cognitively accessible for them. We also [32] unfairly overestimate our contribution to joint projects (Ross & Sicoly, 1979), perhaps in part because our own contributions are highly accessible, whereas the contributions of others are much less so. Even people who should know better, and who need to know better, are subject to cognitive biases. Economists, stock traders, managers, lawyers, and even doctors make the same kinds of mistakes in their professional activities that [33] people make in their everyday lives (Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman, 2002). Just like us, these people are victims of overconfidence, heuristics, and other biases. Furthermore, every year thousands of individuals, such as Ronald Cotton, are charged with and often convicted of crimes based largely on eyewitness evidence. When eyewitnesses testify in courtrooms regarding their memories of a crime, they often are completely sure that they are identifying the right person. But the most common cause of [34] innocent people being falsely convicted is erroneous eyewitness testimony (Wells, Wright, & Bradfield, 1999). Although cognitive biases are common, they are not impossible to control, and psychologists and other scientists are working to help people make better decisions. One possibility is to provide people with better feedback about their Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Weather forecasters, for instance, learn to be quite accurate in their judgments because they have clear feedback about the accuracy of their predictions. Other research has found that accessibility biases can be reduced by leading people to consider multiple alternatives rather than focus only on the most obvious ones, and particularly by leading people to think about opposite possible outcomes than the ones they are expecting (Lilienfeld, Ammirtai, & [36] Landfield, 2009). Forensic psychologists are also working to reduce the incidence of false identification by helping police develop better procedures for interviewing both suspects and eyewitnesses (Steblay, Dysart, Fulero, & Lindsay, [37] 2001). Schemas help us remember new information but may also lead us to falsely remember things that never happened to us and to distort or misremember things that did. Consider a time when you were uncertain if you really experienced an event or only imagined it. How do these knowledge structures bias your information processing and behavior, and how might you prevent them from doing so? Imagine that you were involved in a legal case in which an eyewitness claimed that he had seen a person commit a crime. Based on your knowledge about memory and cognition, what techniques would you use to reduce the possibility that the eyewitness was making a mistaken identification? When dreams become a royal road to confusion: Realistic dreams, dissociation, and fantasy proneness. Memory for expectancy-congruent and expectancy-incongruent information: A review of the social and social developmental literatures. Children report suggested events even when interviewed in a non-suggestive manner: What are its implications for credibility assessment? Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events: A little plausibility goes a long way. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 37(2), 225–233. The myth of repressed memory: False memories and allegations of sexual abuse (1st ed.

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